Application of Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Mixed Reality in Endourology and Urolithiasis: An Update by YAU Endourology and Urolithiasis Working Group.

The integration of virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) in urological practices and medical education has led to modern training systems that are cost-effective and with an increased expectation toward surgical performance and outcomes. VR aids the user in interacting with the virtual environment realistically by providing a three-dimensional (3D) view of the structures inside the body with high-level precision. AR enhances the real environment around users by integrating experience with virtual information over physical models and objects, which in turn has improved understanding of physiological mechanisms and anatomical structures. MR is an immersive technology that provides virtual content to interact with real elements. The field of urolithiasis has adapted the technological advancements, newer instruments, and methods to perform endourologic treatment procedures. This mini-review discusses the applications of Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Mixed Reality in endourology and urolithiasis.

Frontiers in surgery. 2022 Apr 01*** epublish ***

B M Zeeshan Hameed, Shraddha Somani, Etienne Xavier Keller, R Balamanigandan, Satyasundara Mahapatra, Amelia Pietropaolo, Şenol Tonyali, Patrick Juliebø-Jones, Nithesh Naik, Dilip Mishra, Sarvesh Kumar, Piotr Chlosta, Bhaskar K Somani

Department of Urology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, India., Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India., Department of Urology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland., Department of Artificial Intelligence, Institute of Computer Science and Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India., Computer Science and Engineering, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India., European Association of Urology-Young Academic Urologists Urolithiasis and Endourology Working Group, Arnhem, Netherlands., Department of Urology, Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey., Department of Urology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway., International Training and Research in Uro-oncology and Endourology Group, Manipal, India., Department of Urology, Global Rainbow Healthcare, Agra, India., Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Babu Banarasi Das University, Lucknow, India., Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Kraków, Poland.

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