Social Determinants of Kidney Stone Disease: The Impact of Race, Income and Access on Urolithiasis Treatment and Outcomes - Beyond the Abstract
Overall, there is a lack of granularity in the data collected by larger studies exploring kidney stones which then, in turn, impedes thorough exploration of racial and ethnic identities in the context of stone disease and management. It is important to gather this data in order to fully assess and analyze kidney stone management and to ensure that stone disease outcomes are optimized across race, ethnicity, and gender.
We examine the influence of socioeconomic factors on kidney stones outcomes while calling for further study of the relationship between race, ethnicity, and kidney stone disease management and outcomes. We end by recommending a multipronged plan for the appropriate care of diverse kidney stone patients, illustrated in Figure 1 below.
Written by: Kymora B Scotland, Manuel Armas-Phan, Georgina Dominique, David Bayne
University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Emory University, Urology, The Emory Clinic, Atlanta, GA, USA; University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; University of California San Francisco, Urology, San Francisco, CA, USA.
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