Minimally Invasive Treatment of Urolithiasis in Children: Evaluation of the Use of Flexible Ureterorenoscopy and Laser Lithotripsy.

Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease; in recent years, its incidence has gradually increased in pediatric age. Among the factors involved in urolithiasis pathophysiology, urinary tract anomalies and metabolic diseases are the most relevant, although ethnicity and environmental factors may have an important role. The advances in technology and miniaturization of endoscopic devices have permitted the use of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS) to treat kidney and ureteral stones. Nowadays, flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy, which are techniques that have been applied in the management of adult upper urinary tract disorders, are also used in children as a minimally invasive treatment of urolithiasis with encouraging, effective and safe results. The Authors report a retrospective review of their record of cases considering 21 pediatric urolithiasis treatment procedures performed between October 2017 and April 2019 in a total of 17 patients (10 males and 7 females). Six procedures involved the use of the flexible ureterorenoscope (FURS) while in 15 procedures the application of the laser fiber was used (FURSL). A case of laser lithotripsy for bladder stone was included. The average age of patients was 10.5 years (2-18 years). The renal pelvis dilatation pretreatment was evaluated in post-operative follow-up. From the evaluation of the sample in analysis, the use of RIRS has good results in the treatment of paediatric urolithiasis, emerging as a valid option in the management of the paediatric population in terms of efficacy and safety, with an improvement in patient outcomes.

Translational medicine @ UniSa. 2020 May 31*** epublish ***

A Garzi, M Prestipino, E Calabrò, R M Di Crescenzo, M S Rubino

Division of Pediatric M.I.S. and Robotic Surgery University of Salerno, Italy., Division of Pediatric Surgery A.O. S. Maria della Misericordia Perugia, Italy., Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Pathology Unit, University of Naples Federico II.