RCC at ASCO 2019: Immunotherapy for Sarcomatoid Disease

Sumanta Kumar Pal | July 29, 2019

I still remember the debates around treating sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC) a decade ago when I started in practice. There were not many studies to cite – one that often came up was Naomi Haas’s trial of doxorubicin with gemcitabine (ECOG 8802). The study showed progression-free survival (PFS) of 3.5 months and overall survival (OS) of 8.8 months – sobering results, but at least an option we could pursue in the clinic. I only treated a handful of patients with this regimen, but it was certainly no walk in the park – massive fatigue, cytopenias and a range of other toxicities.

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Sumanta Kumar Pal, MD

Sumanta (Monty) Kumar Pal, MD, is an internationally recognized leader in the area of genitourinary cancers, including kidney, bladder, and prostate cancer. He is the Co-director of City of Hope's Kidney Cancer Program and is the head of the kidney and bladder cancer disease. Dr. Pal sits on the Editorial Board for clinical genitourinary cancer and is a reviewer for multiple journals including The Journal of Clinical Oncology, The Journal of Urology, European Urology, and many others.

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Everyday Urology - Oncology Insights
Publications focusing on urologic cancer treatments through original manuscripts
By Anil Kapoor, MD
Published Date: March 2018

Urologists are primed to acquire the knowledge to use targeted agents and immuno-oncologic (IO) therapies for the treatment of advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Toxicities are manageable given appropriate patient/caregiver education, on-call and nursing support, and multi-disciplinary care with consulting specialists. 
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Evidence based monographs by experts to define and guide clinical practice
Written by Jason Zhu, MD
January 29, 2019
Kidney cancer represents 5% of all new cancer diagnoses in the United States, with approximately 64,000 new cases and 14,970 deaths in 2018.1,2 The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the most common histologic subtype of RCC is clear cell RCC, accounting for over 80% of cases.3
Written by Christopher J.D. Wallis, MD, PhD
January 21, 2019
As highlighted in prior articles on the Etiology and Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer, cancers of the kidney and renal pelvis comprise the 6th most common newly diagnosed tumors in men and 10th most common in women1 and account for an estimated 65,340 people new diagnoses and 14,970 cancer-related deaths in 2018 in the United States.
Written by Jason Zhu, MD
November 29, 2018
Kidney cancer is the 12th most common cancer in the world, with over 300,000 new cases annually, of which 65,340 new cases will be diagnosed in the United States in 2018.1 The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) varies substantially based on the country – rates of RCC are higher in Europe and North America and much lower in Asia and South America.2
Expert Commentary
Evidence based monographs by experts to define and guide clinical practice
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
An important study published by Sweis et al. in Cancer Immunology Research investigated the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the lack of immunotherapy efficacy in non-T cell-inflamed bladder cancer.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Nivolumab is an FDA-approved immune checkpoint for treating platinum-resistant metastatic or surgically unresectable urothelial carcinoma (mUC). The development of predictive biomarkers
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine
Arsenic exposure is associated with a higher risk of developing urothelial carcinoma (UC). Previous studies mostly focused on UC of the bladder.
Written by Bishoy M. Falas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine
Early identification of bladder cancer (BC) is critical for improving clinical outcomes. Developing urine-based molecular biomarkers is an area of active research.
Written by Bishoy Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in changes in the expression of MMR proteins that can be detected by immunohistochemistry and high microsatellite instability (MSI).
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
The effect of restaging transurethral resection (Re-TUR) timing after initial transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) on survival rates is not well studied.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Urothelial carcinoma variants are rare and some are associated with poor clinical outcomes. The small-cell variant comprises less than 1% of all bladder cancers. These cancers are more aggressive
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Upper tract urothelial (UTUC) is an uncommon malignancy. Defining the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on long term outcomes in UTUC patients is a critical clinical question. Recently, Birtle et al. reported
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
There is a need for a non-invasive for early detection of bladder cancer (BC). Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations are common in bladder cancer patients. A recent study by Hosen
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Radical cystectomy continues to be the mainstay curative modality for bladder cancer patients. Understanding the long-term clinical outcomes of robotic and open radical cystectomy is critical for decision making.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
The micropapillary and plasmacytoid variants are rare and aggressive urothelial carcinoma (UC) subtypes. The morphological features of these variants in urine cytology are not well described. A recent
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Defining the prognosis of patients who develop intravesical recurrence (IVR) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is critical for the optimal management of these patients.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Effective intravesical postoperative chemotherapy can reduce the risk of bladder cancer recurrence. A recent study by Fukuokaya et al. published in Clinical Genitourinary Cancer examined
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
The relationship between the baseline quality of life (QOL) and clinical outcomes for urothelial cancer (UC) patients is not well defined. A recent study published by Suppanuntaroek et al.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Intravesical recurrence (IVR) rates remain high in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UTUC) patients following radical nephroureterectomy
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Lynch syndrome (LS), caused by a mutation in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2). LS increases the individual’s risk of getting upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
The optimal management of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), some histologic variants, including squamous and glandular, is challenging. A recent article published by Suh et al. in Scientific
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
A significant number of patients with locally advanced and metastatic urothelial cancer (aUC) are not eligible for cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Understanding the demographic factors which affect clinical outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC) is critical for improving oncologic outcomes for all patients. A recent study published in European Urology Oncology examined intraoperative
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Sarcomatoid urothelial bladder cancer (SARC) is an aggressive histological variant of bladder cancer. It is associated with early distant metastasis and poor survival rates. Understanding the molecular characteristics of SARC
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high recurrence rate. Understanding the risk factors for recurrence is essential. The Urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA)
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
The American Urological Association (AUA) recommends that non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients with persistent or recurrent Ta or CIS should receive a second induction course of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Treatment options available for intermediate or high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer include intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and radical cystectomy.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Point mutations in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promotor are reported in invasive and noninvasive, primary and recurrent urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). A deeper understanding of the clinical correlates
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
The relationship between the expression of GATA3, cytokeratin (CK) 20, CK 5/6, and p53 and survival in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is not well characterized.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have incorporated patient-reported outcomes (PRO) to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatment modalities. Adhering to systematic and consistent
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Urine cytology plays an essential role in detecting patients who are at high risk for disease recurrence following non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treatment. A recent study Gupta
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Urine cytology plays a critical role as a noninvasive tool in bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, a substantial fraction of cytology tests is classified as atypical or indeterminate. A need for a minimally-invasive
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Radiotherapy has the potential to sensitize tumors to immune checkpoint blockade. A recent article published by Sundahl et al. in European Urology assessed
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Enfortumab Vedotin (EV) is a novel antibody-drug conjugate targeting Nectin-4, which is overexpressed in urothelial cancer. A recent study published by Takahashi et al. in Investigational New Drugs
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin shortage is a critical access issue for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Defining the efficacy of alternative intravesical treatments is an active area of investigation.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Understanding differences in bladder cancer outcomes between men and women can help physicians tailor optimal treatment and follow-up strategies. A recent paper published by Richters et al. in Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations studied
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Patients with muscle-invasive and high-risk non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of bladder who undergo radical cystectomy (RC) and lymphadenectomy are closely monitored for recurrence. The risk of disease recurrence is highest during the first 
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
The oncogene addiction model occurs when cancer cells become dependent on one mutated oncogene or pathway for the maintenance of a malignant phenotype. Withdrawal of the oncogenic signal
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
The optimal treatment for cisplatin-ineligible patients with metastatic urothelial cancer is unknown.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Patients who achieved a pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have a better prognosis compared to patients with pathologic residual disease (pRD).
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a distinct pathological entity. The significance of histological variants associated with CIS is not well-understood. A recent paper published by Sangoi et al. in The American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
The optimal treatment for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients who are unfit to receive the standard cisplatin-based chemotherapy is uncertain.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
FGFR3 mutations are common in urothelial carcinoma. The APOBEC mutational process is the dominant mutational mechanism in bladder cancer.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC) represent the majority of new bladder cancer diagnoses. A high recurrence rate characterizes the natural history of the disease. Understanding the risk factors for recurrence
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
The use of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as an early detection tool is a promising development. However, the clinical utility of ctDNA in urothelial bladder cancer is not fully understood.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
There is a broad spectrum of bladder cancer responsiveness to treatment in the clinic. The development of practical methods to provide accurate, individualized drug sensitivity information
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Detecting muscle-invasion is a critical step that dictates treatment recommendations. A definitive assessment of muscularis propria (MP) invasion cannot be made in a small number of transurethral resections of bladder tumor
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
A shortage of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Connaught strain occurred between 2013-2016. 
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Perioperative chemotherapy is frequently underutilized. Understanding the trends in the utilization of neoadjuvant or adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) undergoing cystectomy is critical.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
High-resolution micro-ultrasound is a promising technology in the staging of prostate cancer but has not been well studied in bladder cancer patients. A recent paper published by Saita et al. European Urology evaluated the
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Defining the genomic landscapes that characterize the different disease states of urothelial carcinoma is an important area of investigation. A recent study by Nassar et al. recently published in Clinical Cancer
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
There is not enough data on the prognostic value of sarcopenia and nutritional indices in bladder cancer patients who receive definitive radiotherapy. A recent paper by Stangl-Kremser et al. in Urologic Oncology studied
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
A recent study published by Guo et al. in BMC Systems Biology investigated the relationship between AURKA expression, clinicopathologic characteristics and overall survival in patients with bladder cancer using sequential gene expression profiling.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Micropapillary (MP) is a histological variant of bladder cancer. As with most other histological variants of bladder cancer, the available data is derived from small case series and treatment is based on expert opinion.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Bladder cancer is a ‘field’ disease in which early-events occurring in morphologically-normal urothelium eventually give rise to urothelial carcinoma.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Chromosomal damage, breakage, loss, and rearrangement are early events in cancer initiations.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Frequent long-term monitoring is required for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients due to the high rate of recurrence.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Bladder cancer takes an enormous physical, emotional and economic toll on patients.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy (RC) with lymph node dissection is the standard of care in patients with muscle-invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma (MIBC).
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Although urothelial carcinomas of the bladder and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) can have similar histology, they significantly differ in prevalence and risk factors.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a distinct clinical entity with poor clinical outcomes.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICIs) are approved as a second line of treatment for metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) patients with progression on cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Primary carcinoma in situ (P-CIS) of the bladder is rare. Adjuvant intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy has been reported to be effective in reducing recurrence rates in CIS and P-CIS patients 
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer  (MIBC) who are treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) before cystectomy have a survival advantage.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Although hematuria is the most common symptoms of bladder cancer (BC), it can be caused by many non-malignant conditions.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Radical cystectomy (RC) is currently the gold standard operative treatment for localized (T2-T4a) muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) or recurrent high-risk non-MIBC.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Downstaging of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) before radical cystectomy (RC) has been correlated with higher survival rates.  
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
To achieve progress against Urinary bladder cancer (UBC), studies are needed to understand to understand the racial differences in the incidence, presentation, outcomes, and biology of UBC.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Lynch Syndrome (LS) is a common hereditary cancer syndrome that is characterized by mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Due to the very high risk of recurrence, bladder cancer patients require periodic screening and monitoring.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high recurrence rate. Although the BCG therapy is recommended as an immune targeting treatment in high-risk NMIBC tumors, 
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Currently, intermediate or high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients (NMIBC) require intensive follow-up.
Written by Zhamshid Okhunov, MD
Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine Urology
Though nephrectomy is the gold standard treatment for renal cell carcinoma, 20%-40% of patients have a recurrence and 20-30% of patients present with metastatic disease1.
Written by Zhamshid Okhunov, MD
Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine Urology
As men get older, starting at the age of 30 years, their testosterone levels decrease by an average of 3.1 to 3.5ng/dL per year.
Written by Zhamshid Okhunov, MD
Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine Urology
Partial nephrectomies are the standard of care with treatment of T1a or T1b tumors due to their better functional outcomes and decrease cardiovascular morbidity.
Written by Zhamshid Okhunov, MD
Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine Urology
Laparoscopic renal surgery (LRS) has long been recognized for its improvements over open renal surgery for patient quality of life.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a standard of care for patients with cisplatin-eligible muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Platinum-resistant urothelial carcinoma is a lethal disease. After a long period of therapeutic stagnation, the last two years have witnessed an explosion in the development of new second-line therapies.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a standard of care for patients with urothelial muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Bladder preservation therapy is a definitive treatment option for clinically localized bladder cancer.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells shed from the tumor that enter the circulation.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Clinically-localized bladder cancer is amenable to local treatments because of its accessibility.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is less common than bladder urothelial carcinoma. The biological characteristics of this form of the disease is not completely understood.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Patients with advanced platinum-resistant urothelial carcinoma have limited therapeutic options.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Methotrexate-vinblastine-doxorubicin-cisplatin (MVAC) neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a standard of care for muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer.
Written by Bishoy M. Faltas, MD
Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).
Conference Coverage
Recent data from conferences worldwide
Presented by Tim Q. Eisen, PhD, MB, BChir
Barcelona, Spain (UroToday.com) Four large, randomized Phase 3 clinical trials (S-TRAC, ASSURE, PROTECT, and ATLAS) evaluated adjuvant VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with resected renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
Presented by Axel Bex, MD, PhD
Barcelona, Spain (UroToday.com) The current standard for advanced localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is nephrectomy. Unfortunately, for better or worse, the series of adjuvant therapy
Presented by Marc-Oliver Grimm
Barcelona, Spain (UroToday.com) Dr. Marc-Oliver Grimm provided an overview of the many changes in the landscape for advanced renal cell carcinoma at the urogenital cancer treatment at a glance session. He started by highlight that the guidelines for advanced kidney cancer have been revamped recently
Presented by Cristina Suarez, MD
Munich, Germany (UroToday.com) IMmotion 150 (Phase II) compared the efficacy of atezolizumab (atezo) plus bevacizumab (bev) with atezolizumab alone and sunitinib alone