The aim is to assess the outcomes of different approaches for the management of renal stones associated with horseshoe kidneys (HSKs) in our institution over a 12-year period.
A retrospective review of 144 patients with HSKs who presented from 2000 to 2012 was performed. Twenty-eight patients (19.4%) were found to have renal stones. Demographic data were collected; the method of treatment and the outcomes of stone management were reviewed. We excluded patients with non-functioning moieties and associated genitourinary anomalies, and those with incomplete data.
We included 25 patients, of which 16 males (64%) and 9 females (36%), with a mean age of 37 years. Mean serum creatinine level was 66 mmol/L. Eleven patients with a stone size <8 mm were treated expectantly with medical treatment, with only one patient requiring endoscopic intervention. Six patients (24%) with a stone size between 1 cm and ≤2 cm were treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) with the placement of double J stents, and seven patients (28%) with a stone size of >2 cm were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy. One patient with a 10 mm stone was treated using flexible ureteroscopy. No significant perioperative complications were encountered.
Indications, methods of treatment, and outcomes of management of stones associated with HSKs were comparable to those for stones associated with normal kidneys. Tailored approach based on stone size is highly recommended. ESWL accompanied with ureteric stenting is a promising strategy for the management of stones associated with HSKs in selected patients requiring intervention.
Urology annals. 0000 Jan [Epub]
Abdulhakim Al Otay, Osama Sarhan, Hossam S El-Tholoth, Ahmed Alhelaly, Hamad Al Akrash, Mustafa Al Ghanbar, Khaled Al Bedaiwi, Ziad Nakshabandi, Ali Obeid
Division of Pediatric Urology, Department of Urology, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.