Does chronic hyperglycaemia increase the risk of kidney stone disease? results from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was performed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for studies reporting on diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MetS) and kidney stone disease (KSD).

To examine the association between chronic hyperglycaemia, in the form of DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in the context of MetS and KSD.

Population-based observational studies. Databases searched: Ovid MEDLINE without revisions (1996 to June 2018), Cochrane Library (2018), CINAHL (1990 to June 2018),, Google Scholar and individual journals including the Journal of Urology, European Urology and Kidney International.

Patients with and without chronic hyperglycaemic states (DM and MetS).

English language articles from January 2001 to June 2018 reporting on observational studies.

No comparator group or fewer than 100 patients. Unadjusted values were used for meta-analysis, with further meta-regression presented as adjusted values. Bias was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale.

2340 articles were screened with 13 studies included for meta-analysis, 7 DM (three cohort) and 6 MetS. Five of the MetS studies provided data on IGT alone. These included: DM, n=28 329; MetS, n=31 767; IGT, n=12 770.

DM, n=5 89 791; MetS, n=1 78 050; IGT, n=2 93 852 patients. Adjusted risk for DM cohort studies, RR=1.23 (0.94 to 1.51) (p<0.001). Adjusted ORs for: DM cross-sectional/case-control studies, OR=1.32 (1.21 to 1.43) (p<0.001); IGT, OR=1.26 (0.92 to 1.58) (p<0.0001) and MetS, OR=1.35 (1.16 to 1.54) (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference between IGT and DM (cross-sectional/case-control), nor IGT and MetS. There was a moderate risk of publication bias. Statistical heterogeneity remained significant in adjusted DM cohort values and adjusted IGT (cross-sectional/case-control), but non-signficant for adjusted DM (cross-sectional/case-control).

Chronic hyperglycaemia increases the risk of developing kidney stone disease. In the context of the diabetes pandemic, this will increase the burden of stone related morbidity and mortality.


BMJ open. 2020 Jan 19*** epublish ***

Robert Geraghty, Abdihakim Abdi, Bhaskar Somani, Paul Cook, Paul Roderick

Urology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK ., University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire, UK., Urology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton, UK., Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire, UK., Health Care Research Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.