Prevalence of Vitamin D Inadequacy in Urolithiasis Patients.

Introduction The role of vitamin D in kidney stone disease is unclear. Current evidence and existing studies are inconsistent and inconclusive. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of vitamin D (VD) inadequacy (VDI) and metabolic abnormalities in urolithiasis patients presenting to a tertiary care center. Materials and methods This is a prospective case-control study of 200 patients divided into two groups - Group 1: 100 urolithiasis patients (case group), and Group 2: 100 non-urolithiasis patients (control group) - which was conducted from January 2016 to January 2017. Demographic, clinical data, parathyroid level, serum 25-hydroxy VD [25(OH)D], and metabolic stone work-up were recorded and analyzed.  Results Patient demographics were comparable in both groups. The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in urolithiasis patients was 95% as compared to 57% in the control group. The mean value ± SD of serum vitamin D in urolithiasis patients (16.5 ± 8.6 ng/mL) was significantly lower than in non-urolithiasis patients (28.7 ± 8.3 ng/mL) (p = <0.0001). Thirty-seven percent of the patients were recurrent stone formers. Hyperparathyroidism was observed in 77% of the patients and 71% of them were secondary to VDI. Conclusion Urolithiasis patients were found to have an increased prevalence of deficient VD related to secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Cureus. 2021 Jun 01*** epublish ***

Kunal Dholakia, Nivash Selvaraj, Narasimhan Ragavan

Uro-oncologist, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, IND., Urology, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, IND.