This article examines via multivariate analysis the associations between demographic factors and systemic diseases on stone risk parameters in a stone-forming population. A retrospective chart review of adult stone formers who completed 24-hour urine collections from April 2004 through August 2015 was performed. Data was collected on age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), and diagnoses of diabetes and hypertension. CT imaging and renal/abdominal ultrasonography (within ± 66 mo) were reviewed for diagnosis of fatty liver disease. Statistical analysis included Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis, and linear and logistic regression analyses, both univariate and multivariate. Five hundred eighty-nine patients were included. Numerous urinary parameters were significant in association with demographic factors or systemic diseases in a multivariate analysis. Older age was associated with decreased calcium (Ca) excretion (P = 0.0214), supersaturation of calcium oxalate (SSCaOx; P = 0.0262), supersaturation of calcium phosphate (SSCaP; P < 0.0001), and urinary pH (P = 0.0201). Men excreted more Ca (P = 0.0015) and oxalate (Ox; P = 0.0010), had lower urine pH (P = 0.0269), and higher supersaturation of uric acid (SSUA; P < 0.0001) than women. Blacks had lower urine volume (P = 0.0023), less Ca excretion (P = 0.0142), less Ox excretion (P = 0.0074), and higher SSUA (P = 0.0049). Diabetes was associated with more Ox excretion (P < 0.0001), lower SSCaP (P = 0.0068), and lower urinary pH (P = 0.0153). There were positive correlations between BMI and Ca excretion (P = 0.0386), BMI and Ox excretion (P = 0.0177), and BMI and SSUA (P = 0.0045). These results demonstrate that demographic factors and systemic disease are independently associated with numerous risk factors for kidney stones. The mechanisms responsible for these associations and disparities (racial differences) need to be further elucidated.
Reviews in urology. 2019 Jan [Epub]
Kyle Wood, Carter Boyd, Dustin Whitaker, Omotola Ashorobi, William Poore, Barbara Gower, Dean G Assimos
Department of Urology, University of Alabama-Birmingham Birmingham, AL., University of Alabama-Birmingham School of Medicine Birmingham, AL., Department of Nutrition, University of Alabama-Birmingham Birmingham, AL.