The role of the strength of family history of stones (FHS), i.e., degree of relatives with the disease, on the course of calcium urolithiasis (CU) is not fully understood, particularly in young patients where genetic background has the greatest influence on disease expression. Thus, with a retrospective cross-sectional design, we examined baseline clinical parameters and urinary chemistries of 369 subjects (196 M) with CU and 96 controls (41 M) aged between 15 and 25 at the time of the first visit at our stone clinic. Subjects with metabolic syndrome traits, known causes of CU or CU onset before the age of 15 were excluded. Clinical and metabolic parameters were compared among stone formers (SF) and controls, stratified by gender, the presence and type of FHS determined through the kinship coefficient of relatives with stones. No significant differences in clinical course were found between SF with and without FHS, except for the presence of bilateral stones (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.20-3.39, p < 0.01). A significant age-, sex- and disease duration-adjusted trend for a higher number of colics (p for trend = 0.001), number of stones (p for trend = 0.002), stone rate (p for trend = 0.003) and the presence of retained stones (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.14-2.21, p = 0.006) was detected with increasing FHS strength. Urinary chemistries were unaffected by FHS in both SF and controls, except for a higher calcium excretion in females with FHS (p < 0.05). The type of FHS, thus, significantly influences the clinical course of CU in young SF, mainly irrespective of urinary factors.
Urolithiasis. 2016 Dec 09 [Epub ahead of print]
Angela Guerra, Andrea Ticinesi, Franca Allegri, Antonio Nouvenne, Silvana Pinelli, Fulvio Lauretani, Marcello Maggio, Gianfranco Cervellin, Loris Borghi, Tiziana Meschi
Geriatric Rehabilitation Department, University-Hospital of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, 43126, Parma, Italy., Geriatric Rehabilitation Department, University-Hospital of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, 43126, Parma, Italy. ., Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, 43126, Parma, Italy., Emergency Department, University-Hospital of Parma, Via Antonio Gramsci 14, 43126, Parma, Italy.