Various anomalous kidneys such as horseshoe kidney, crossed ectopic kidney, simple ectopic kidney, pelvic ectopic kidney, kidney with duplex system, and malrotated kidney are frequently associated with stone disease. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a challenging procedure in these patients because of abnormal orientation of kidney.
Since 2005-2015, 86 patients underwent PCNL for stone removal in anomalous kidneys. Stone characteristics, type of calyceal puncture, number of punctures, need of relook procedures, mean hemoglobin drop, blood transfusion, mean operative time complications, mean hospital stay, stone free rate, and auxiliary procedure were analyzed.
Totally 91 sessions of PCNL was done in 86 patients including five of horseshoe kidney who had bilateral stone disease. Mean age, duration of symptoms, stone size, and hospital stay was 29.6 ± 12.6 years, 2.18 ± 1.41 years, 4.40 ± 1.16, and 4.17 ± 2.11 days, respectively. Sixteen patients underwent relook procedure, out of which only 6 could have complete stone clearance.
PCNL in anomalous kidney is a safe and feasible procedure similar to normally located kidney, but requires careful preoperative planning and intra- and post-operative vigilance.
Urology annals. 0000 Jan [Epub]
Gaurav Prakash, Rahul Janak Sinha, Ankur Jhanwar, Ankur Bansal, Vishwajeet Singh
Department of Urology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.