An Increase Incidence in Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: Changing Patterns

Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease affecting all age groups globally. As the causative factors for nephrolithiasis rises significantly, its incidence, prevalence and recurrence continues to baffle clinicians and patients.

To study the prevalence of different types of renal stones extracted by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgical procedures.

Renal stones from 50 patients were retrieved by Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), Ureterorenoscopy (URS) and open surgical techniques for qualitative tests for detection of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, phosphate, ammonium ion, carbonate, cystine and xanthine.

Three patients had stone removed by open surgery and rest had undergone PCNL. Nine of the stones were pure of calcium oxalate, 9 were of pure uric acid and 32 were mixed stones. Forty one stones had calcium. Among the mixed stones, oxalate was present in 25 samples (39 of total), uric acid was seen in 17 (25 of total stones), phosphate was present in 23 (23 of total) and carbonate was present in 4 stones (4 of total). Only 1 patient had triple phosphate stone. 12 were of staghorn appearance of which 6 were of struvite type, 6 were pure uric acid and remaining were mixed oxalate-phosphate stones.

Our study, though in a small number of hospital based patients, found much higher prevalence of uric acid stones and mixed stones than reported by previous hospital based studies in north India (oxalate stones~90%, uric acid~1% and mixed stones~3%). Biochemical analysis of renal stones is warranted in all cases.

Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR. 2016 Jul 01 [Epub]

Asha Kumari, Sumit Dokwal, Pawan Mittal, Rajender Kumar, Richa Goel, Piyush Bansal, Himanshu Devender Kumar, Jaikrit Bhutani

Demonstrator, Department of Biochemistry, PGIMS , Rohtak, Haryana, India ., Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, PGIMS , Rohtak, Haryana, India ., Medical Officer, ESI Pinjore, Haryana, India ., Junior Resident, Department of Biochemistry, PGIMS , Rohtak, Haryana, India ., Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, BPS GMC Khanpur, Sonepat, Haryana, India ., House Surgeon, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, PGIMS , Rohtak, Haryana, India .