Metabolic syndrome and the composition of urinary calculi: is there any relation?

Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that obesity and diabetes increase the prevalence of urinary lithiasis. Most of these studies did not stratify the chemical composition of calculi and the physiological mechanisms responsible for this increased risk are not well understood. This study aims to investigate the relation between the metabolic syndrome and the composition of the urinary calculi.

Observational and retrospective study of all urinary calculi analysis performed at the Centro Hospitalar do Tâmega e Sousa, Portugal - from January 2009 to September 2015. Calculi were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy.

302 analyses of urinary calculi were identified. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 20.5% of patients. A total of 7 different mineral compounds were identified: 51.6% (N = 156) contained calcium oxalate, 41% (N = 124) calcium phosphate, 37.7% (N = 114) uric acid, 22.1% (N = 67) ammonium urate, 9.6% (N = 29) ammonium magnesium phosphate, 6.3% (N = 19) sodium urate and 1.3% (N = 4) contained cystine. Patients with metabolic syndrome presented a higher proportion of uric acid calculi (66.1% vs. 0%, p <0.001) and ammonium urate calculi (38.7% vs. 17%, p = 0.001). Patients without metabolic syndrome had a higher proportion of calcium oxalate calculi (58.8% vs. 24.2%, p <0.001) and calcium phosphate (46.7% vs. 19.4%, p <0.001).

There is a statistically significant relation between metabolic syndrome and uric acid and ammonium urate calculi. Metabolic syndrome may be considered risk factor for this calculi and the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome must be considered for urolithiasis prevention. Further studies are needed to better the understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying this relationship to improve our strategy of prevention of urinary lithiasis.

Central European journal of urology. 2019 Sep 16 [Epub]

Pedro Valente, Hélder Castro, Inês Pereira, Fernando Vila, Paulo Barros Araújo, Cristina Vivas, Ana Silva, Ana Oliveira, Joaquim Lindoro

Department of Urology, Centro Hospitalar do Tâmega e Sousa, E.P.E., Penafiel, Portugal., Unidade de Saúde Familiar Terras de Souza, Paredes, Portugal.