Although nephrolithiasis is a more common disease in men rather than women, several studies over the last decades show that the male to female ratio 3:1 is narrowing. These finding may be associated to modified risk factors for stone formation between females and males. Changes in lifestyle and increasing obesity in women may play a role in shifting of gender disparity. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated an increase of kidney stones in women which have necessitated emergency department visits (ED). Therefore, females show a greater percentage of mortality rate if compared to males, especially if stone disease is associated to urosepsis and requires the admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). This article reviews recent insights into changing gender prevalence in urinary calculi and into identifying the relation between gender and risk factors for stone disease, that in case of severe urosepsis might also lead to mortality.
Urologia. 2020 Oct 21 [Epub ahead of print]
Elisa Cicerello, Mario S Mangano, Giandavide Cova, Matteo Ciaccia
Unità Complessa di Urologia, Dipartimento di Chirurgia Specialistica, Ospedale Ca' Foncello, Treviso, Italy.