Numerous metabolic anomalies, which often have no direct pathological relevance when considered individually, are found in all people. In most patients with urinary tract stones, it can be assumed that a specific combination or interaction of these anomalies occurs, thus, resulting in stone formation, but only after individual exogenous risk factors are triggered. Lithogenesis is the result of a cascade of different "events" that are temporally close to one another, but sometimes these events interact strong enough that significant stone growth occurs. Chronic metabolic disorders usually lead to permanently altered urine compositions. The occurrence of physiological urine constituents in nonnormal concentration ratios and/or the nonphysiological excretion of metabolic products can significantly increase the lithogenicity of urine, so that urolithiasis can manifest itself as a clinical symptom. In cases of urolithiasis of unknown origin, a potentially hidden rare metabolic anomaly should always be considered. In addition, if a patient has a known metabolic disease, then this should always be taken into account as a risk factor for stone formation and attempts should be taken to clarify its influence on urine composition. This also applies to the efficacy of a therapy. A distinct link between a metabolic disease and stone formation is generally rare and will likely remain so despite significant advances regarding differential diagnosis and etiopathology. This article focuses on very rare metabolic causes and/or genetic syndromes which may be associated with urolithiasis. Patients receiving symptomatic stone treatment should receive life-long follow-up care from a urologist because reducing the recurrence rate helps to improve the quality of life of the patients.
Der Urologe. Ausg. A. 2017 May 29 [Epub ahead of print]
C Fisang, N Laube
Harnsteinzentrum Rhein-Ahr, Marienhausklinikum im Kreis Ahrweiler, Dahlienweg 3, 53474, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Deutschland. ., Harnsteinzentrum Rhein-Ahr, Marienhausklinikum im Kreis Ahrweiler, Dahlienweg 3, 53474, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Deutschland.