This study was conducted to estimate kidney stone incidence in China using data of large prospective population cohorts, the Shanghai Women’s Health Study and Shanghai Men’s Health Study. Subjects included in the current study were middle-aged and elderly urban Chinese who were free of kidney stone at baseline recruitment (women, 40-70 years, N=69,166; men, 40-74 years, N=58,054). Information regarding demographics, dietary habits, physical activities, and medical history including history of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke were collected via in-person interviews at baseline. Self-reported kidney stone occurrences were recorded at the follow-up visits.
After an average 8 years of follow-up, overall kidney stone incidence rates were 3.80 (95% CI 3.59-4.02) and 2.10 (95% CI 1.99-2.21) per 1000 person-years for men and women, respectively. Higher risk of kidney stones were observed among participants who were overweight/obese (body mass index≥25 kg/m2 or centrally obese (waist-hip-ratio>0.80 for women and >0.90 for men). History of coronary heart disease/store was related to higher kidney stone risk in women but not men, while hypertension was associated with higher risk in men only. Reasons for the observed gender disparities are not clear, but this supports growing evidence that women and men may have different risk factor profiles for kidney stones. No association was observed for history of diabetes in both genders. However, the possibility of under-diagnosis of diabetes among study participants may undermine our power to detect the associations. The findings of this study provide evidence that the association of metabolic syndrome and kidney stone disease persists across race and ethnicity.
Written by: Xiang Shu, Hui Cai, Yong-Bing Xiang, Honglan Li, Loren Lipworth, Nicole L Miller, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu, Ryan S Hsi
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