Specific factors associated with the risk of developing pediatric urinary stone disease remain unclear, especially those that may be associated with recurrent stone disease.
We compared the results of 24-h urine collections in children with a solitary stone episode to those with multiple stone episodes to determine if there is a difference that may be associated with multiple stone formation in children.
A multi-institutional retrospective analysis was completed to assess 24-h urinary metabolic profiles in children with urolithiasis aged 2-18 years old. Differences in mean urine collections between the two groups were assessed using chi-square tests to test the associations among gender, stone type, and multiple stone status, as well as multivariate analyses using general linear models.
We analyzed 142 solitary stone patients and 136 multiple stone patients from four centers were included. Multiple stone patients were older than solitary stone patients (mean 13.4 ± 3.6 years vs. 12 ± 3.9 years, p = 0.002). Females were more likely to have multiple stones (58% vs. 39%, p = 0.002). BMI was not associated with multiple stones (p = 0.8467). Multiple stone formers had lower urine volumes, although this did not reach statistical significance when compared with solitary stone formation (20.4 mL/kg/day ± 11.5 vs. 22.9 ± 13.0, p = 0.0880). Higher values for super-saturation of calcium oxalate were associated with multiple stone disease in univariate (p = 0.0485) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0469) (Figure). Centers located in the Southeast of the United States saw a higher proportion of children with multiple stones (Tennessee 62.7%, Virginia 44.4%, Oregon 31.6%, Michigan 27.3%, p < 0.0001).
In a large multi-institutional retrospective analysis we found that multiple stone disease was associated with higher super-saturations of calcium oxalate. Many urinary parameters changed with patient age, highlighting that the values should be interpreted with respect to patient age. The inability to comment on follow-up because of the nature of our dataset is a limitation of this study.
Multiple stone disease in children is associated with higher super-saturation calcium oxalate, while lower urinary volume may also be associated with multiple stones; however, further study is required. Early metabolic evaluation may help risk stratify children likely to form multiple stones.
Journal of pediatric urology. 2017 Apr 20 [Epub ahead of print]
Theodore R Saitz, Solange Mongoue-Tchokote, Cynthia Sharadin, Dana W Giel, Sean Corbett, Larisa Kovacevic, Aaron P Bayne, Collaboration on Urolithiasis in Pediatrics (CUP) Working Group
Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Urology, Portland, OR, USA., Oregon Health and Science University, Biostatistics Shared Resource, Knight Cancer Institute, Portland, OR, USA., University of Tennessee, Department of Urology, Memphis, TN, USA., University of Virginia, Department of Urology, Charlottesville, VA, USA., CHM, Department of Pediatric Urology, Detroit, MI, USA., Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Urology, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address: .