Mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy with high-power holmium YAG laser in pediatric patients with staghorn and complex calculi

Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is the treatment of choice for most cases of renal lithiasis in children. Some cases, however, are refractory to SWL and may be associated with anatomic and metabolic changes or a large stone burden. In these circumstances, mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) is an option.

The aim was to assess the safety and efficacy of high-power holmium YAG (Ho:YAG) laser in mini-PCNL for staghorn calculi.

The clinical records relating to 35 mini-PCNLs (Table) performed between January 2008 and December 2012 in 33 patients (27 boys and 6 girls; mean age 7 years, range 2-18 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-two (66.7%) of the patients had undergone a previous SWL (28.6% three sessions). The mini-PCNL puncture technique used involved fluoroscopic guidance with the C arm at 0-90° in the supine position. An 18F tract was used. Stone fragmentation was performed with a high-power Ho:YAG laser (Lumenis 100 W).

Ten of the mini-PCNLs (28.6%) were right sided, and 25 were left sided (71.4%). Stones were located in the lower calyceal group in 64% of patients and in the renal pelvis in 50%. The mean stone size was 4.46 cm(2) (range 3-13.20 cm(2)). The number of stones varied between one and 20, and 83.3% were radiopaque. The laser was set at 70 W (range 50-100 W) (3.5 J/pulse with a frequency of 20 pulses/s). The mean surgical time was 150 min. In 78% of patients, complete stone clearance was achieved, and the overall stone-free rate rose to 85% when residual stones were treated with either SWL or retrograde intrarenal surgery. No perioperative complications were seen.

There are few reports in the literature concerning the use of a high-power laser for treatment of complex stones and the few that do exist relate to adults have similar results, showing it to be highly effective and safe, with low morbidity. Some limitations of the present study must be acknowledged. It was retrospective and a relatively small number of patients were included. However, randomized prospective studies are required to confirm our findings and conclusions.

In the pediatric population, mini-PCNL with high-power Ho:YAG laser is feasible and safe and represents the technique of choice for complex renal stones.

Journal of pediatric urology. 2016 May 26 [Epub ahead of print]

Anna Bujons, Félix Millán, Clara Centeno, Esteban Emiliani, Francisco Sánchez Martín, Oriol Angerri, Jorge Caffaratti, Humberto Villavicencio

Pediatric Urology Department, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: ., Pediatric Urology Department, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain., Pediatric Urology Department, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain., Pediatric Urology Department, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain., Pediatric Urology Department, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain., Pediatric Urology Department, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain., Pediatric Urology Department, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain., Pediatric Urology Department, Fundació Puigvert, Barcelona, Spain.

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