Established and recent developments in the pharmacological management of urolithiasis: an overview of the current treatment armamentarium.

Introduction: Urolithiasis is a common, highly recurrent disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. There are many dietary and pharmacological measures to prevent kidney stones.Areas covered: Herein, the authors explore medical expulsive therapy as well as pharmacological therapies to prevent/treat urolithiasis. Expert opinion: All stone formers should be advised to increase their fluid intake sufficiently to achieve a urine volume of at least 2.5 L/day. In the case of hypercalciuria, a thiazide diuretic should be prescribed while in cases of hypocitraturia, potassium citrate should be given. In the case of hyperoxaluria, the treatment depends on the type of hyperoxaluria. Pyridoxine or calcium supplements with a meal can be offered. For uric acid stone formers, alkali therapy is the standard of care whereas allopurinol can be beneficial in hyperuricosuric stone formers. For cystine stone formers, increased fluid intake, restriction of sodium and animal protein ingestion, and urinary alkalinization are the standard therapies used. Cystine binding thiol drugs such as tiopronin and D-penicillamine are reserved for patients where a conservative approach fails. For struvite stone formers, optimal management is the complete stone removal. Acetohydroxamic acid may be offered only after surgical options have been exhausted, for patients with residual stones but it has many side effects.

Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2019 Nov 12 [Epub ahead of print]

Mohamed Abou Chakra, Athanasios E Dellis, Athanasios G Papatsoris, Mohamad Moussa

Department of Urology, Al Zahraa Hospital, University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon., Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Aretaieion Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece., 2nd Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sismanoglio Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.