Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disease. A link has been established between nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. A significant correlation has been found between the high levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and CVD and atherosclerosis, including coronary and femoral artery disease. To the best of our knowledge, oxLDL has not been evaluated in patients with nephrolithiasis. This study aimed to evaluate serum levels of oxLDL, anti-oxLDL antibodies (oxLDL-ab) and other markers of atherosclerosis in patients with nephrolithiasis, according to the severity of the disease. The population sample consisted of 94 patients of 30-70 years of age with no symptoms of CVD who presented with renal calculi documented by ultrasonography, abdominal X-ray or computed tomography. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (≥ 3 stones) and Group 2 (1-2 stones). A comparison control group was formed with 21 healthy individuals. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to assess oxLDL and oxLDL-ab. Lipid peroxidation indexes were also analyzed. Median serum oxLDL values were higher in Groups 1 and 2 compared to the control group (≥ 3 stones, p = 0.02; 1-2 stones, p = 0.03). Median serum anti-oxLDL antibody levels were lower in the patients in Group 1 compared to the controls (p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in the oxLDL/oxLDL-ab ratio between patients and controls. These findings suggest that this may be the link between nephrolithiasis and the greater incidence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney stones.
Urolithiasis. 2018 Oct 09 [Epub ahead of print]
Augustus Cesar Pinto de Freitas, Leuridan Cavalcante Torres, Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte, Marina Cadena da Matta, Dulce Elena Casarini, Nestor Schor
Departamento de Nefrologia, Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Caixa Postal 1393, Rua dos Coelhos 300, Boa Vista, Recife, PE, 50070 550, Brazil. ., Translational Research Laboratory, Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, PE, Brazil., Department of Nephrology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.