Ureteroscopy for Stone Disease in Paediatric Population is Safe and Effective in Medium-Volume and High-Volume Centres: Evidence from a Systematic Review

The incidence of urinary stone disease among the paediatric population is increasing. Whilst there has been a rise in the number of original studies published on ureteroscopy (URS) in children, critical review still remains under-reported.

A Cochrane style systematic review was performed to identify all original articles on URS (minimum of 25 cases) for stone disease in paediatric patients between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2016. Based on the number of reported cases, centres were divided into medium (25-49 cases) and high (≥ 50 cases) volume studies. Thirty-four studies (2758 children) satisfied our search criteria and were included in this review. The mean stone size was 8.6 mm with an overall stone-free rate (SFR) of 90.4% (range 58-100). Medium-volume centres reported a mean SFR of 94.1% (range 87.5-100), whilst high-volume centres reported a mean SFR of 88.1% (range 58-98.5). Mean number of sessions to achieve stone-free status in medium-volume and high-volume groups was 1.1 and 1.2 procedures/patient respectively. The overall complication rate was 11.1% (327/2994). Breakdown by Clavien grade was as follows: Clavien I 69% and Clavien II/III 31%. There were no Clavien IV/V complications, and no mortality was recorded across any of the studies. The overall failure to access rate was 2.5% (76/2944). Medium-volume and high-volume studies had overall complication rates of 6.9% (37/530) and 12.1% (287/2222) respectively, but there was no significant difference in major or minor complications between these two groups. Ureteroscopy is a safe and effective treatment for paediatric stone disease. Medium-volume centres can achieve equally high SFRs and safety profiles as high-volume centres. Despite the rarity of paediatric stone disease, our findings might increase the uptake of paediatric URS procedures.

Current urology reports. 2017 Oct 18*** epublish ***

Shazna Rob, Patrick Jones, Amelia Pietropaolo, Stephen Griffin, Bhaskar K Somani

Department of Urology, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, UK., Department of Paediatric Urology, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, UK., Department of Urology, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, UK. .