Risk factors for kidney stone disease recurrence: a comprehensive meta-analysis.

Kidney stone disease (KSD) is a common illness that causes an economic burden globally. It is easy for patients to relapse once they have suffered from this disease. The reported recurrence rate of KSD ranged from 6. 1% to 66.9%. We performed this meta-analysis to identify various potential risk factors for the recurrence of KSD.

The PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases were searched using suitable keywords from inception to Mar 2022. A total of 2,663 records were collected initially. After screening the literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 53 articles (40 retrospective studies; 13 prospective studies) including 488,130 patients were enrolled. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42020171771).

The pooled results indicated that 12 risk factors including younger age (n = 18), higher BMI (n = 16), family history of kidney stones (n = 12), personal history of kidney stones (n = 11), hypertension (n = 5), uric acid stone (n = 4), race of Caucasian (n = 3), suspected kidney stone episode before the first confirmed stone episode (n = 3), surgery (n = 3), any concurrent asymptomatic (nonobstructing) stone (n = 2), pelvic or lower pole kidney stone (n = 2), and 24 h urine test completion (n = 2) were identified to be associated with KSD recurrence. In the subgroup analysis, patients with higher BMI (OR = 1.062), personal history of nephrolithiasis (OR = 1.402), or surgery (OR = 3.178) had a higher risk of radiographic KSD recurrence.

We identified 12 risk factors related to the recurrence of KSD. The results of this analysis could serve to construct recurrence prediction models. It could also supply a basis for preventing the recurrence of KSD.

BMC urology. 2022 Apr 19*** epublish ***

Kai Wang, Jing Ge, Wenlong Han, Dong Wang, Yinjuan Zhao, Yanhao Shen, Jiexun Chen, Dongming Chen, Jing Wu, Ning Shen, Shuai Zhu, Bin Xue, Xianlin Xu

Department of Urology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 109 Longmian Road, Jiangning District, Nanjing, 211100, Jiangsu Province, China., Collaborative Innovation Center of Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, Jiangsu Province, China., Department of Core Laboratory, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 109 Longmian Road, Jiangning District, Nanjing, 211100, Jiangsu Province, China., China Exposomics Institute (CEI) Precision Medicine Co. Ltd, Shanghai, 200120, China., Department of Urology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 109 Longmian Road, Jiangning District, Nanjing, 211100, Jiangsu Province, China. ., Department of Core Laboratory, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 109 Longmian Road, Jiangning District, Nanjing, 211100, Jiangsu Province, China. ., Department of Urology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 109 Longmian Road, Jiangning District, Nanjing, 211100, Jiangsu Province, China. .

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