Intermittent Catheters

Clean intermittent catheterization revisited - Beyond the Abstract

Intermittent Self-Catheterization (ISC) is a great option for patients who are unable to completely empty their bladders. Providers have an important role in encouraging their patients to keep up with ISC and this review article aims to update providers on the most current literature regarding IC and practical clinical application. 

Patients stop doing ISC for many reasons, they find it cumbersome, it disrupts their daily life and it can be painful. Many of the ideas discussed in the article address these issues, including proper teaching of the IC to allow patients to have a good grasp on the technique so they are comfortable when catheterizing. In addition, patients fear acquiring urinary tract infections from performing IC when really, the opposite is true. Urinary stasis from retention can lead to overgrowth of bacteria and urosepsis. So providers need to reinforce that IC does not cause infection but rather allows the bacteria to drain from the bladder in regular intervals, preventing microbial overgrowth and potential for urosepsis. 

In the article, we discuss the different catheter types including lubricated and non-lubricated, as well as single use vs multiple use catheters. Each has its pros and cons and ultimately a discussion must be had with the patient to choose the best type of catheter for their life style. 

It is important to remind patients throughout the process that IC should become a part of their life and not take it over. Overtime, patients will realize they can continue everyday activities and perform ISC as well. 

We hope that this article provides the information that providers (Urologists and Primary Care Providers) need to implement an IC bladder management in appropriate patients. 

Written by: Eliza Lamin, MD and Diane K. Newman, DNP FAAN BCB-PMD

Read the Abstract 

Clean intermittent catheterization revisited

Catheterization is the insertion of a hollow flexible tube (called a catheter) to drain the urine from the bladder and is probably one of the oldest urologic procedures, dating back 3000 years. Since 1972, when urologist Dr Jack Lapides described a procedure for performing clean intermittent catheterization, this method of bladder management has become lifesaving for an individual who cannot empty their bladder independently.

Intermittent catheterisation for long-term bladder management (abridged Cochrane Review) - Abstract

AIMS: To review the evidence on strategies to reduce UTI, other complications or improve satisfaction in intermittent catheter (IC) users by comparing: (1) one catheter design, material or technique versus another; (2) sterile technique versus clean; or (3) single-use (sterile) or multiple-use (clean) catheters.

The male experience of ISC with a silicone catheter - Abstract

Since its introduction in the 1970s, intermittent self-catheterisation (ISC) has become more common and should be considered the method of choice for draining retained urine.

Use of clean intermittent self-catheterization in France: A survey of patient and GP perspectives - Abstract

AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of GP (general practitioner) patients performing ISC (intermittent self-catheterization), to describe GP and patient knowledge about ISC and to assess the patients' quality of life.

The feasibility of clean intermittent self-catheterization teaching in an outpatient setting - Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of teaching clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) in an outpatient setting to women planning surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and/or urinary incontinence (UI).

Managing and teaching intermittent catheterisation - Abstract

Intermittent catheterisation provides a safe and effective alternative to indwelling catheterisation for many patients who require bladder drainage.

Urinary tract infection and bacteriuria in children performing clean intermittent catheterization with reused catheters - Abstract

Study design: This study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional cross-over trial on children performing clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) with reused catheters for 1 or 3 weeks.

Ureteral cannulation as a complication of urethral catheterization - Abstract

Urinary catheterization is a common procedure, particularly among patients with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury.

Self-intermittent catheterization in multiple sclerosis - Abstract

Clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) is considered the method of choice for treating urinary retention as of neurologic origin.

Intermittent catheterisation for long-term bladder management - Abstract

BACKGROUND: Intermittent catheterisation is a commonly recommended procedure for people with incomplete bladder emptying.

Efficacy of tamsulosin hydrochloride in relieving "double-J ureteral stent-related morbidity": A randomized placebo controlled clinical study - Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin therapy in reducing ureteral double-J stent morbidity by evaluating USSQ, IPSS, QOL and VAS (primary objective) and to evaluate the morbidity and or complication(s) associated with indwelling double-J ureteral stent(s) and to evaluate the safety of tamsulosin therapy for "morbidity associated with double-J stents" by evaluating its tolerability, side effects and adverse events if any (secondary objective) as per protocol.

American cranberry (proanthocyanidin 120mg): Its value for the prevention of urinary tracts infections after ureteral catheter placement - Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most frequent complications after urinary tract surgical procedures, mainly when catheter placement is necessary.

Intermittent catheterization in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury: Obstacles, worries, level of satisfaction - Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the obstacles in people with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) face performing intermittent catheterization (IC), also their worries and level of satisfaction.

Reuse versus single-use catheters for intermittent catheterization: What is safe and preferred? Review of current status - Abstract

Study Design: This is a narrative review summarizing prevalence and background of reusing catheters for intermittent catheterization. It also compares complications related to reuse versus single use.

Validation of the InCaSaQ, a new tool for the evaluation of patient satisfaction with clean intermittent self-catheterization - Abstract

Aims: In neurourology, the choice of catheter is of paramount importance. At the time of our study, no simple validated questionnaire has been published, evaluating patient satisfaction with the use of urinary catheters.

Ensuring patient adherence to clean intermittent self-catheterization - Abstract

Patient performance of clean intermittent self-catheterization is a crucial component of the management of incomplete bladder emptying, which can arise from a variety of conditions.

Intermittent self catheterisation with hydrophilic, gel reservoir, and non-coated catheters: A systematic review and cost effectiveness analysis - Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the most effective and cost effective type of catheter for patients performing intermittent self catheterisation in the community.

Development and psychometric validation of the intermittent self-catheterization questionnaire

BERKELEY, CA ( - Pinder and colleagues describe the development and validation of the Intermittent Self-Catheterization Questionnaire (ISC-Q).

An overview of male intermittent self-catheterisation

BERKELEY, CA ( - This is a very comprehensive review for clinicians who teach men intermittent self-catheterization (ISC).

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