X-ray Computed Tomography Articles


  • Accuracy of Computed Tomography for Identifying Locally Advanced Disease in Patients with Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer


    Introduction: To retrospectively evaluate the utility of computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying patients with locally advanced bladder cancer.

    Methods: We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved review of 858 patients that underwent radical cystectomy (RC) from 2000 to 2008 at our institution. We selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) who underwent up-front RC without neoadjuvant chemotherapy and who were assessed by preoperative CT scan. We limited this analysis to 48 CT scans obtained prior to transurethral resection. All CT scans were blinded and retrospectively re-read by a dedicated genitourinary radiologist (CSN) to identify tumor location, the presence of wall thickening, and evidence of extravesical disease (stranding or nodularity) or lymph node metastases. These radiologic findings were compared with pathologic findings.

    Results: Pretransurethral resection CT scans were able to accurately identify tumor location in 66.7% of patients (sensitivity = 88.9%, specificity = 33.3%) while lymph node assessment was accurate in 58.3% (sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 62.5%). However, only 16.7% of patients with pathologic T3b disease were actually identified on CT as having radiologic evidence of extravesical disease. Specific radiologic signs suggestive of local disease extension, such as wall thickening, stranding, and nodularity correlated poorly with true pathologic T3b disease.

    Conclusion: CT scanning has limits in its ability to accurately identify extravesical disease and lymph node spread in patients with MIBC. Investigations into additional or alternative means of clinical staging for bladder cancer patients are incredibly crucial.

    Rian J. Dickstein, Chaan S. Ng, Colin P. Dinney, Ashish M. Kamat,

    Departments of Urology and Radiology, the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States

    Submitted May 29, 2013 - Accepted for Publication August 14, 2013

    KEYWORDS: Urinary bladder neoplasms, X-ray computed tomography, neoplasm staging

    CORRESPONDENCE: Ashish M. Kamat, Department of Urology, Unit 1373, the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030, United States ()

    CITATION: UroToday Int J. 2013 October;6(5):art 55. http://dx.doi.org/10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2013.10.02

    Published September 12, 2013
  • Diagnostic value of 64-slice spiral computed tomography imaging of the urinary tract during the excretory phase for urinary tract obstruction.

    The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) imaging of the urinary tract during the excretory phase for urinary tract obstruction. CT imaging of the urinary tract during the excretory phase was performed in 46 patients that had been diagnosed with urinary tract obstruction by B-mode ultrasound imaging or clinical manifestations.

    Published December 13, 2017
  • Early reduction in spectral dual-layer detector CT parameters as favorable imaging biomarkers in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    To associate the early change in DL-CT parameters and HU with survival outcomes and treatment response in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).

    DL-CT scans were performed at baseline and after 1 month of checkpoint immunotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.

    Published May 9, 2022
  • Imaging of Solid Renal Masses.

    The increase in serendipitous detection of solid renal masses on imaging has not resulted in a reduction in mortality from renal cell carcinoma. Consequently, efforts for improved lesion characterization have been pursued and incorporated into management algorithms for distinguishing clinically significant tumors from those with favorable histology or benign conditions.

    Published August 1, 2018