Initiatives to Improve Access to Care and their Effect on Reducing Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer Outcomes - Editorial

Black men face a pandemic of prostate cancer risk and lethality which will still be present long after COVID passes. As compared to White men, Black American men have a high risk of presenting with aggressive and metastatic disease and suffer a 2.4 fold higher risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality, and a nearly 10-fold higher risk of death from prostate cancer as compared to Asian American men. This disparity in outcomes is present in both rural and urban regions1 in the United States and some of the highest global regions of prostate cancer mortality are in Africa and the Caribbean. This racial disparity may be linked to differences in biology2,3, access to care4, differences in treatment receipt, comorbidities, differences in risks and exposures, and differences in screening and early detection. 

In light of this observed disparity, Krimphove and colleagues5 from Harvard analyzed the National Cancer Database for all men with metastatic or locally advanced prostate cancer between 2004-10 and compared outcomes by race. Overall, Black men were more likely to have metastatic disease in this cohort as compared to locally advanced disease, were less likely to receive surgery or radiation, were more likely to be uninsured, were more likely to be treated locally, and to have not completed a high school education.


stephen j freedland

Stephen J. Freedland, MD

Stephen J. Freedland, MD, is director of the Center for Integrated Research in Cancer and Lifestyle and co-director of the Cancer Genetics and Prevention Program and Associate Director for Faculty Development at the Cedars-Sinai Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute. He is also a faculty physician in the Division of Urology within the Department of Surgery at Cedars-Sinai. He has served on numerous American Urological Association guideline panels for prostate cancer and co-chaired a prostate cancer guideline panel for the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Dr. Freedland's clinical area of expertise focuses on urological diseases, particularly benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. His approach toward cancer prevention and awareness focuses on treating the whole patient, not just the disease, by combining traditional Western medicine with complementary holistic interventions. His research interests include investigations on urological diseases and the role of diet, lifestyle and obesity in prostate cancer development and progression, as well as prostate cancer among racial groups and risk stratification for men with prostate cancer.

PCAN: May 2020

Evaluation of the Contribution of Demographics, Access to Health Care, Treatment, and Tumor Characteristics to Racial Differences in Survival of Advanced Prostate Cancer - Full-Text Article

Background - Racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes in the United States may be due to differences in tumor biology and race-based differences in access and treatment. We designed a study to estimate the relative contribution of these factors on Black/White disparities in overall survival (OS) in advanced PCa.
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PCAN: April 2020

Survival of African-American and Caucasian Men after Sipuleucel-T Immunotherapy: Outcomes from the PROCEED Registry

Purpose - African Americans experience greater prostate cancer risk and mortality than do Caucasians. An analysis of pooled phase III data suggested differences in overall survival (OS) between African American and Caucasian men receiving sipuleucel-T. We explored this in PROCEED (NCT01306890), an FDA-requested registry in over 1900 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with sipuleucel-T.
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PCAN: March 2020

Feasibility of Freehand MRI/US Cognitive Fusion Transperineal Biopsy of the Prostate in Local Anaesthesia as In-Office Procedure— Experience with 400 Patients - Full-Text Article

Background - Transrectal (TR) ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy is one of the most commonly performed urologic procedures worldwide. The major drawback of this approach is the associated risk for infectious complications. Sepsis rates are increasing due to rising antibiotic resistance, representing a global issue. The transperineal (TP) approach for prostate biopsy has recently been adopted at many centres as an alternative to the TR biopsy, and it was shown to be associated with a lower risk for sepsis. The aim of this study was to assess safety and tolerability of TP prostate biopsy performed in local anaesthesia.

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PCAN: February 2020

Impact of New Systemic Therapies on Overall Survival of Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer in a Hospital-Based Registry - Full Text Article

Background - In 2004, docetaxel was shown to prolong the overall survival (OS) of patients with metastatic castration resistance prostate cancer (mCRPC). Since 2010, five new systemic therapies have been shown to prolong OS in men with mCRPC. We sought to evaluate the aggregate impact of these newer therapies on the OS of patients with mCRPC.
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PCAN: January 2020

Impact of Preoperative Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging on the Surgical Management of High-Risk Prostate Cancer - Full Text Article

Objective - To evaluate the effect of adding multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to pre-surgical planning on surgical decision making for the management of high-risk prostate cancer (HRPC).

Patients and methods - A survey was designed to query multiple centers on surgical decisions of 41 consecutive HRPC cases seen from 2012 to 2015. HRPC was defined by the National Comprehensive Cancer Center Network guidelines. Six fellowship-trained urologic oncologists were asked for their surgical plan in regards to the degree of planned nerve-sparing and lymph node dissection.
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