Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Prostate Cancer Risk— Editorial

In the constant search for better approaches to treat and ultimately prevent prostate cancer, it is essential that we better understand the underlying etiology of prostate cancer. In times like this, I am often discouraged by the common mantra that the only known risk factors for prostate cancer are “age, race, and family history”. Surely, there must be other risk factors. Over time, certain risk factors have revealed themselves – obesity (aggressive prostate cancer), diet (likely, but exact details still evolving), and smoking (aggressive prostate cancer) to mention a few. One common factor, but certainly not the only factor, linking obesity, diet, and smoking is they all increase inflammation. If true that increased inflammation drives more prostate cancer, then it begs the question of whether other conditions that are clearly inflammatory-related are linked with prostate cancer. With this background in mind, Ge and colleagues tested the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and prostate cancer risk.


stephen j freedland

Stephen J. Freedland, MD

Stephen J. Freedland, MD, is director of the Center for Integrated Research in Cancer and Lifestyle and co-director of the Cancer Genetics and Prevention Program and Associate Director for Faculty Development at the Cedars-Sinai Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute. He is also a faculty physician in the Division of Urology within the Department of Surgery at Cedars-Sinai. He has served on numerous American Urological Association guideline panels for prostate cancer and co-chaired a prostate cancer guideline panel for the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Dr. Freedland's clinical area of expertise focuses on urological diseases, particularly benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. His approach toward cancer prevention and awareness focuses on treating the whole patient, not just the disease, by combining traditional Western medicine with complementary holistic interventions. His research interests include investigations on urological diseases and the role of diet, lifestyle and obesity in prostate cancer development and progression, as well as prostate cancer among racial groups and risk stratification for men with prostate cancer.

PCAN: July 2020

The Association Between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Meta-Analysis - Full Text Article

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal malignancies. However, the associations between IBD and prostate cancer (PCa) risk remain conflicting.

Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) or relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to 
determine the relationship of IBD and PCa risk.
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PCAN: June 2020

Long-term Use of 5-alpha-reductase Inhibitors is Safe and Effective in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer - Full-Text Article

Background - Although 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) have been shown to benefit men with prostate cancer (PCa) on active surveillance (AS), their long-term safety remains controversial. Our objective is to describe the long-term association of 5ARI use with PCa progression in men on AS.

Materials/subjects and methods - The cohort of men with low-risk PCa was derived from a prospectively maintained AS database at the Princess Margaret (1995–2016). Pathologic, grade, and volume progression were the primary end points. Kaplan–Meier time-to-event analysis
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PCAN: May 2020

Evaluation of the Contribution of Demographics, Access to Health Care, Treatment, and Tumor Characteristics to Racial Differences in Survival of Advanced Prostate Cancer - Full-Text Article

Background - Racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes in the United States may be due to differences in tumor biology and race-based differences in access and treatment. We designed a study to estimate the relative contribution of these factors on Black/White disparities in overall survival (OS) in advanced PCa.
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PCAN: April 2020

Survival of African-American and Caucasian Men after Sipuleucel-T Immunotherapy: Outcomes from the PROCEED Registry

Purpose - African Americans experience greater prostate cancer risk and mortality than do Caucasians. An analysis of pooled phase III data suggested differences in overall survival (OS) between African American and Caucasian men receiving sipuleucel-T. We explored this in PROCEED (NCT01306890), an FDA-requested registry in over 1900 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with sipuleucel-T.
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PCAN: March 2020

Feasibility of Freehand MRI/US Cognitive Fusion Transperineal Biopsy of the Prostate in Local Anaesthesia as In-Office Procedure— Experience with 400 Patients - Full-Text Article

Background - Transrectal (TR) ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy is one of the most commonly performed urologic procedures worldwide. The major drawback of this approach is the associated risk for infectious complications. Sepsis rates are increasing due to rising antibiotic resistance, representing a global issue. The transperineal (TP) approach for prostate biopsy has recently been adopted at many centres as an alternative to the TR biopsy, and it was shown to be associated with a lower risk for sepsis. The aim of this study was to assess safety and tolerability of TP prostate biopsy performed in local anaesthesia.

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PCAN: February 2020

Impact of New Systemic Therapies on Overall Survival of Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer in a Hospital-Based Registry - Full Text Article

Background - In 2004, docetaxel was shown to prolong the overall survival (OS) of patients with metastatic castration resistance prostate cancer (mCRPC). Since 2010, five new systemic therapies have been shown to prolong OS in men with mCRPC. We sought to evaluate the aggregate impact of these newer therapies on the OS of patients with mCRPC.
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