Overall Survival of Black and White Men with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC): A 20-Year Retrospective Analysis in the Largest Healthcare Trust in England - Editorial

Every medical school textbook lists three risk factors for developing prostate cancer: age, family history, and race. Specifically, Black men (i.e. those of African ancestry) are at increased risk. On the population level, Black men are ~67% more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer than White men. When it comes to aggressive cancers, however, the picture is less clear. Yes, Black men are 2 to 2.5 times more likely to die from prostate cancer than White men. Does that mean the disease is more aggressive or does that reflect poorer access to care and less aggressive treatments? Increasing data suggest that though on the population level among men with prostate cancer, Black men are more likely to die when given equal access and equal treatments, outcomes among men with localized disease are similar between Black and White men. What about men with advanced disease – specifically those with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC)? Several studies from the United States found that among men with mCRPC, survival was actually better for Black men vs. White men. The question is whether these findings (more cancers, equal aggressiveness, but better survival in mCRPC) are unique to the United States, or can the results be replicated in other countries too?


stephen j freedland

Stephen J. Freedland, MD

Stephen J. Freedland, MD, is director of the Center for Integrated Research in Cancer and Lifestyle and co-director of the Cancer Genetics and Prevention Program and Associate Director for Faculty Development at the Cedars-Sinai Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute. He is also a faculty physician in the Division of Urology within the Department of Surgery at Cedars-Sinai. He has served on numerous American Urological Association guideline panels for prostate cancer and co-chaired a prostate cancer guideline panel for the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Dr. Freedland's clinical area of expertise focuses on urological diseases, particularly benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. His approach toward cancer prevention and awareness focuses on treating the whole patient, not just the disease, by combining traditional Western medicine with complementary holistic interventions. His research interests include investigations on urological diseases and the role of diet, lifestyle and obesity in prostate cancer development and progression, as well as prostate cancer among racial groups and risk stratification for men with prostate cancer.

PCAN: May 2021

Overall Survival of Black and White Men with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC): A 20-Year Retrospective Analysis in the Largest Healthcare Trust in England - Full Text Article


Background: Prostate cancer in black men is associated with poorer outcomes than their white counterparts. However, most studies reporting this disparity were conducted in localized prostate cancer and primarily in the United States.

Methods: Data regarding prostate cancer incidence and mortality for East London between 2008 and 2010 were obtained from the UK National Disease Registration Service. We further evaluated survival outcomes of 425 cases of mCRPC in St Bartholomew’s Hospital, East London, between 1997 and 2016, and analyzed whether ethnicity impacted on responses to different treatment types.

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PCAN: April 2021

Racial Disparity in the Utilization of Multiparametric MRI–Ultrasound Fusion Biopsy for the Detection of Prostate Cancer - Full Text Article

Black men have significantly higher incidence and are up to three times more likely to die of prostate cancer (PCa) than White men. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion biopsy (FBx) has emerged as a promising modality for the detection of PCa. The goal of our study is to identify differences in utilization of FBx between Black and White men presenting with suspicion of PCa.

We performed a retrospective review of Black and White men who presented with suspicion of PCa and required biopsy from January 2014 to December 2018. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to study the influence of race on the utilization of FBx.
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PCAN: March 2021

Androgen Receptor Gain in Circulating Free DNA and Splicing Variant 7 in Exosomes Predict Clinical Outcome in CRPC Patients Treated with Abiraterone and Enzalutamide - Full-Text Article

Background - Androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitors represent the standard treatment in metastatic castration resistance prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. However, some patients display a primary resistance, and several studies investigated the role of the AR as a predictive biomarker of response to treatment. This study is aimed to evaluate the role of AR in liquid biopsy to predict clinical outcome to AR signaling inhibitors in mCRPC patients.

Methods - Six milliliters of plasma samples were collected before first-line treatment with abiraterone or enzalutamide. Circulating free DNA (cfDNA) and exosome-RNA were isolated for analysis of AR gain and AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7), respectively, by digital droplet PCR.
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PCAN: February 2021

Prospective Study to Define the Clinical Utility and Benefit of Decipher Testing in Men Following Prostatectomy - Full-Text Article

Background - Genomic classifiers (GC) have been shown to improve risk stratification post prostatectomy. However, their clinical benefit has not been prospectively demonstrated. We sought to determine the impact of GC testing on postoperative management in men with prostate cancer post prostatectomy.

Methods - Two prospective registries of prostate cancer patients treated between 2014 and 2019 were included. All men underwent Decipher tumor testing for adverse features post prostatectomy (Decipher Biosciences, San Diego, CA). The clinical utility cohort, which measured the change in treatment decision-making, captured pre- and postgenomic treatment recommendations from urologists across diverse practice settings (n = 3455). The clinical benefit cohort, which examined the difference in outcome, was from a single academic institution whose tumor board predefined “best practices” based on GC results (n = 135).
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PCAN: January 2021

Preoperative Frailty Predicts Adverse Short-Term Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy - Full-Text Article

Background - To investigate the effect of frailty on short-term postoperative outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (RP).

Methods - Within the National Inpatient Sample database, we identified 91,618 RP patients treated between 2008 and 2015. The Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups frailty-defining indicator was applied, and we examined the rates of frailty over time, as well as its effect on overall complications, major complications, nonhome-based discharge, length of stay (LOS), and total hospital charges (THCs). Time trends and multivariable logistic, Poisson and linear regression models were applied.
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PCAN: December 2020

3-Year Results Following Treatment with the Second Generation of the Temporary Implantable Nitinol Device in Men with LUTS Secondary to Benign Prostatic Obstruction - Full-Text Article

Background - To report the 3-year results of a prospective, single arm, multicenter, international clinical study with the second generation of the temporary implantable nitinol device (iTIND; Medi-Tate Ltd®, Israel) on men suffering lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic obstruction (BPO).
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