Low-carbohydrate Diet Plus Walking to Reduce ADT-induced Metabolic Disturbances Among Prostate Cancer Patients - Commentary

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is standard treatment for advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. While it is very effective for cancer control, it has many side effects. Commonly known side effects include loss of libido, fatigue, osteoporosis, and hot flashes. Additionally, ADT has metabolic side effects. Imagine a young athlete using steroids to have a competitive advantage. They gain muscle mass and lose fat. Now imagine the same man 50 years later undergoing ADT for his prostate cancer – it will have the exact opposite effects – gain of fat mass and loss of muscle mass.

These changes are coupled with a ~40% increased relative risk of diabetes. While exercise can help preserve muscle mass, to date, no treatment has been shown to prevent this metabolic sequela. Given one of the fundamental problems from ADT is problems with controlling sugar, what if people simply didn’t eat sugar?

There is tremendous growth in interest in the ketogenic diet, an extreme form on a low carbohydrate (i.e. sugar) diet. Proponents often tout it as the cure-all for diabetes, obesity, and possibly even cancer. Opponents argue that it is not sustainable, is bad for the environment, and it simply can’t be healthy to eat all that fat. Where


stephen j freedland

Stephen J. Freedland, MD

Stephen J. Freedland, MD, is director of the Center for Integrated Research in Cancer and Lifestyle and co-director of the Cancer Genetics and Prevention Program and Associate Director for Faculty Development at the Cedars-Sinai Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute. He is also a faculty physician in the Division of Urology within the Department of Surgery at Cedars-Sinai. He has served on numerous American Urological Association guideline panels for prostate cancer and co-chaired a prostate cancer guideline panel for the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Dr. Freedland's clinical area of expertise focuses on urological diseases, particularly benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. His approach toward cancer prevention and awareness focuses on treating the whole patient, not just the disease, by combining traditional Western medicine with complementary holistic interventions. His research interests include investigations on urological diseases and the role of diet, lifestyle and obesity in prostate cancer development and progression, as well as prostate cancer among racial groups and risk stratification for men with prostate cancer.

PCAN: September 2019

A Lifestyle Intervention of Weight Loss via a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Plus Walking to Reduce Metabolic Disturbances Caused by Androgen Deprivation Therapy Among Prostate Cancer Patients: Carbohydrate and Prostate Study 1 (CAPS1) Randomized Controlled Trial

Purpose - The objective of this study was to test a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) plus walking to reduce androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-induced metabolic disturbances.

Materials and methods - This randomized multi-center trial of prostate cancer (PCa) patients initiating ADT was designed to compare an LCD (≤20g
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PCAN: August 2019

Management of Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radiotherapy: Longterm Results from CALGB 9687 (Alliance), a Prospective Multiinstitutional Salvage Prostatectomy Series - Full Text Article

Background - To evaluate efficacy and morbidity prospectively in a contemporary multi-institutional salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) series.

Methods - Forty-one men were enrolled between 1997 and 2006, who suffered biopsy-proven recurrent prostate cancer (CaP) after receiving ≥ 60c Gy radiation as primary treatment for cT1–2NXM0 disease. Surgical morbidity, quality of life, biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated.
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PCAN: July 2019

Impact of Age, Comorbidity, and PSA Doubling Time on Long-Term Competing Risks for Mortality Among Men with Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer - Full Text Article

Background - Understanding competing risks for mortality is critical in determining prognosis among men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC), a disease state that often affects older men and has substantial heterogeneity in risk of cancer mortality. We sought to determine the impact of age, comorbidity, and PSA doubling time (PSADT) on competing risks for mortality in men with nmCRPC.
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PCAN: June 2019

Prevalence of DNA Repair Gene Mutations in Localized Prostate Cancer According to Clinical and Pathologic Features: Association of Gleason Score and Tumor Stage - Full Text Article

Background - DNA repair gene mutations are present in 8–10% of localized prostate cancers. It is unknown whether this is influenced by clinicopathologic factors.

Methods - We interrogated localized prostate adenocarcinomas with tumor DNA sequencing information from the TCGA validated (n = 333) and Nature Genetics (n = 377) datasets. Homologous recombination repair genes included in our

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PCAN: May 2019

Efficacy and Safety of Enucleation vs. Resection of Prostate for Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - Full Text Article

The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 

This meta-analysis was conducted through a systematic search before 1 September 2018. All included publications were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Efficacy was evaluated based on International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and quality of life (QoL).
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PCAN: April 2019

Statin Use and Time to Progression in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer - Full Text Article

Recent evidence suggests that statins may improve prostate cancer outcomes; however, their role in active surveillance (AS) is poorly characterized. We aimed to evaluate the association between statin use at diagnosis and time to progression on AS. 

Data were obtained from a prospectively maintained cohort of men undergoing AS between 1995 and 2016 at our institution. All men satisfied the low-risk criteria: Gleason score <7, <4 positive cores, <50% involvement of any core, and prostate-specific antigen level <10.0 ng/dL. Kaplan–Meier curves and
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