From the Editor

From the Desk of the Associate Editor: Blood-based and Urinary Prostate Cancer Biomarkers: A Review and Comparison of Novel Biomarkers for Detection and Treatment Decisions 

Ashley Ross
October 17, 2017

PSA screening has allowed for the detection of prostate cancer at curable clinical stages, and accordingly, there has been a reduction in prostate cancer specific mortality in the PSA era.  Criticisms of PSA based screening, and its utilization for decision making regarding biopsy have focused on its sensitivity, and lack of specificity for prostate cancer.  Use of PSA alone can lead to unnecessary initial and repeat biopsies, and to the detection of indolent prostate cancer, all of which cause health and economic burdens.

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stephen j freedland

Stephen J. Freedland, MD

Stephen J. Freedland, MD, is director of the Center for Integrated Research in Cancer and Lifestyle and co-director of the Cancer Genetics and Prevention Program and Associate Director for Faculty Development at the Cedars-Sinai Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute. He is also a faculty physician in the Division of Urology within the Department of Surgery at Cedars-Sinai. He has served on numerous American Urological Association guideline panels for prostate cancer and co-chaired a prostate cancer guideline panel for the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Dr. Freedland's clinical area of expertise focuses on urological diseases, particularly benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. His approach toward cancer prevention and awareness focuses on treating the whole patient, not just the disease, by combining traditional Western medicine with complementary holistic interventions. His research interests include investigations on urological diseases and the role of diet, lifestyle and obesity in prostate cancer development and progression, as well as prostate cancer among racial groups and risk stratification for men with prostate cancer.


PCAN: October 2017

Blood-based and Urinary Prostate Cancer Biomarkers: A Review and Comparison of Novel Biomarkers for Detection and Treatment Decisions

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is currently based on serum PSA testing and/or abnormal digital rectal examination and histopathologic evaluation of prostate biopsies. The main drawback of PSA testing is the lack of specificity for PCa. To improve early detection of PCa more specific biomarkers are needed. In the past few years, many new promising biomarkers have been identified; however, to date, only a few have reached clinical practice.
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PCAN: September 2017

Meta-analysis of metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer (PCa) are highly prevalent conditions worldwide. Current evidence suggests the emerging hypothesis that MetS could play a role in the development and progression of several neoplasms. The aims of this study are to evaluate the impact of MetS and MetS factors on PCa incidence, on the risk of high-grade PCa and to analyze the role of MetS and single MetS components on the development of aggressive PCa features.
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PCAN: August 2017

PET imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen in prostate cancer: current state of the art and future challenges.

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a cell surface enzyme that is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and is currently being extensively explored as a promising target for molecular imaging in a variety of clinical contexts. Novel antibody and small-molecule PSMA radiotracers labeled with a variety of radionuclides for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging applications have been developed and explored in recent studies.
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PCAN: July 2017

Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and dementia risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to treat prostate cancer may be associated with an increased risk of dementia, but existing studies have shown conflicting results. Here we synthesize the literature on the association of ADT for the treatment of prostate cancer with dementia risk.
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PCAN: June 2017

Imaging response during therapy with radium-223 for castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases—analysis of an international multicenter database

BACKGROUND: The imaging response to radium-223 therapy is at present poorly described. We aimed to describe the imaging response to radium-223 treatment.

METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy response of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with radium-223, in eight centers in three countries.
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PCAN: May 2017

Which, when and why? Rational use of tissue-based molecular testing in localized prostate cancer

Abstract

An increased molecular understanding of localized prostate cancer and the improved ability for molecular testing of pathologic tissue has led to the development of multiple clinical assays. Here we review the relevant molecular biology of localized prostate cancer, currently available tissue-based tests and describe which is best supported for use in various clinical scenarios. Literature regarding testing of human prostate cancer tissue with Ki-67, PTEN (by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or fluroescence in situ hybridization (FISH)), ProMark, Prolaris, OncotypeDX Prostate and Decipher was reviewed to allow for generation of expert opinions.
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