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Urethral strictures do not tend to be at the forefront of most clinicians’ minds when considering the adverse effects of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Quite correctly, the first considerations would be for those associated with any collateral damage to the rectum or bladder. But all urologists are well aware of radiation related urethral strictures because the great majority would have these patients in their clinical workload. They are ‘heavy’ patients in that they need a lot of counseling and often require a lot of work to ‘manage’ their disease.  It is often a case of where a few patients as such can
Race, family history, and age.  Those are the three classic risk factors for prostate cancer that are etched in stone in every textbook and course taught. While absolutely true, the challenge is that none of these are modifiable.  We can’t change our race.  We can’t grow younger and as much as some of us would like, we can’t change our parents. As such, we are stuck.  Our risk is our risk.  Or is it?  Are there modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer? It is now clear that obesity and smoking are modifiable risk factors for fatal prostate cancer. While avoiding obesity and not smoking sound like overall good advice, is there more specific advice we can give to our patients or to men at risk who don’t want to become patients in the first place. 
Active surveillance (AS) provides a safe management option for men with low-risk and selected men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. However, concerns persist that African American (AA) men pursuing AS are at increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes relative to other races. 

These investigators undertook a systematic review of studies of AA men with low-risk prostate cancer and AS. They identified eleven studies focused on pathologic features at time of surgery and five on other clinical outcomes. Further, they reviewed genetic characteristics of prostate cancer and the AA population. They did not
Enzalutamide is a second generation AR inhibitor that engages AR through the ligand binding domain, inhibiting DNA binding and AR activity. In the PREVAIL study, enzalutamide improved overall survival in chemotherapy naïve men with mCRPC, and enzalutamide is presently a standard of care for these men, with greater activity observed when used prior to docetaxel as compared to following docetaxel.  While most men respond to enzalutamide in this setting, all men develop treatment resistance between 1-3 years. This present article explores how men progress on enzalutamide, using data from the PREVAIL trial.
PSA screening has allowed for the detection of prostate cancer at curable clinical stages, and accordingly, there has been a reduction in prostate cancer specific mortality in the PSA era.  Criticisms of PSA based screening, and its utilization for decision making regarding biopsy have focused on its sensitivity, and lack of specificity for prostate cancer.  Use of PSA alone can lead to unnecessary initial and repeat biopsies, and to the detection of indolent prostate cancer, all of which cause health and economic burdens.
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of conditions including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and alterations in serum lipids. It was originally defined as a syndrome that is linked with increased risk of heart disease. As the obesity epidemic has swept through the Western world, the rates of metabolic syndrome have likewise risen dramatically. As many of the conditions that constitute the metabolic syndrome have individually been linked with cancer, there is growing interest in the role of the metabolic syndrome with cancer. 
Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as a basis for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of prostate cancer. As recently as a few years ago, there were only handfuls of abstracts on this subject matter at the major international urology conferences.  Over the past couple of years, there has literally been an explosion of clinical abstracts, particularly in the evaluation of Ga68 PSMA PET/CT as a staging tool at diagnosis and in the setting of evaluating biochemical recurrence following primary definitive treatment of localised disease.

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