Issue 4: August 2010

UIJ Volume 3 Issue 4 2010

Letter from the Editor - August 2010

Dear Colleagues,

The first annual reception hosted by the UroToday International Journal® was held during the 2010 AUA annual conference in San Francisco. The reception took place at the City Club of San Francisco where authors, reviewers, members of the Editorial Board, and industry mingled amongst beautiful artwork and views of the San Francisco skyline. The event was a welcomed reprieve from the hectic pace of the conference and provided the opportunity to honor the seven award-winning authors whose articles were deemed highly relevant to the scientific community and whose findings have strong implications for clinicians and patients. I enjoyed the privilege of presenting the awards to those authors able to attend the reception. I appreciate the support of our reviewers and Editorial Board for their dedication to the ongoing publication of the UroToday International Journal.

The rate of article submissions remains on the rise and the number of individual subscribers continues to grow to near 22,000 representative of all continents. Page views for the journal have more than doubled since the same time last year, reaching over 90,000 per year. We look forward to ongoing growth and to continuing to communicate relevant science throughout 2010.

This issue offers publication of a number of original research articles. Valentini and colleagues extended their previously published mathematical micturition model for analysis of urodynamic traces to include additional findings about nervous system control.

Two clinical investigations provide insight into treatment outcomes. First, Dash et al compared the effects of tamsulosin plus flavoxate with tamsulosin plus a placebo for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in 120 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although both treatment groups responded to therapy, the group taking the two active drugs had significant improvement in symptom scores and quality of life measures. Second, there is currently no universal agreement about choosing flexible ureteroscopy (URS) or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for management of kidney stones after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has failed. The investigation by ElShebiny provides some insight. He studied 66 patients and discovered that the stone-free rate was similar following either procedure. Although PCNL surgery was shorter in duration and may be the best choice for removal of lower calyx stones, the advantages of significantly shorter hospital stay and less patient discomfort following URS may make it a preferred choice for other cases.

Xin-min et al measured 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plasma levels of the internal spermatic vein and peripheral vein in 30 patients with varicocele and infertility, and compared the results with 30 fertile patients needing other types of scrotal surgery. The authors found that patients with varicocele had significantly elevated 5-HT plasma levels in the spermatic vein.

Finally, this issue contains a number of case reports. Logan et al present a 58-year-old male with liposarcoma of the spermatic cord. The authors provide an extensive literature review on diagnosis and management of this disorder and recommend long-term surveillance for recurrence. Habibi et al describe a rare case of basal cell carcinoma that metastasized to the kidney of a 61-year-old female. Advanced imaging techniques are improving earlier detection of renal metastasis and this case provides a reminder that metastatic disease should be considered when evaluating renal masses.

Thank you for your continued support of the journal. I welcome your comments and look forward to including those that I receive in future issues.


Kind regards,

K-E Andersson

Basal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to the Kidney: A Case Report


Metastases to the kidney are uncommon and usually seen in the setting of widespread disease. Furthermore, these metastases are usually clinically silent and therefore often detected only on autopsy. The most common primary sites are, in descending order, the lung, breast, and gastrointestinal tract. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) rarely metastasizes; however when BCC does metastasize, the lung and bone are the most likely sites of involvement. BCC metastatic to the kidney is an extremely rare occurrence, with only several cases reported in the literature. The present case is a 61-year-old female with past medical history of BCC, who presented with a right gluteal mass and had an irregular hypodensity in the left kidney. Biopsy of the renal lesion showed tumor cells morphologically identical to the patient’s prior BCC, and subsequent immunohistochemical findings were consistent with BCC.

KEYWORDS: Kidney; Metastases; Basal cell carcinoma.

CORRESPONDENCE: Joseph Habibi, MD, VCU Medical Center, PO Box 980118, Richmond, VA 23298, USA ().

CITATION: Urotoday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.14

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: BCC, basal cell carcinoma; CT, computed tomography.



Laparoscopic Management of Suprarenal Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report


The present report is a case of successful resection of a retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma using laparoscopic surgery. There are few cases of this kind reported in the literature. The vast majority of patients have open surgery when the tumors are at an advanced stage. The patient is a 36-year-old man who presented with right upper abdominal pain. Evaluation by imaging studies led to the diagnosis of a retroperitoneal tumor (7.5 cm in diameter) above the right kidney. Laparoscopic surgery was performed. Histopathologic examination of the resected specimen showed a totally excised leiomyosarcoma. At a 10-month follow-up, the patient was disease-free and doing well. The results show that laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma tumor can be applied safely and successfully as a minimally invasive procedure.

KEYWORDS: Leiomyosarcoma; Laparoscopy; Retroperitoneal tumor; Laparoscopic surgery.

CORRESPONDENCE: Masashi Matsushima, PhD, Department of Urology, Saitama Medical School, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495, Japan ().

CITATION: Urotoday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.15

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance image; PK, PlasmaKinetic.



Pseudotumoral Eosinophilic Cystitis in 2 Children From India


Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare form of bladder inflammation. Fewer than 30 pediatric cases have been described in the literature. The current report is about 2 children, ages 11 years and 4 years. Both patients presented with irritative voiding disturbances and a bladder mass lesion that was seen on imaging. The diagnosis of eosinophilic cystitis was confirmed by cystoscopic biopsy. The children were treated with antihistamines, which resulted in complete clinical and radiological resolution of the lesion.

KEYWORDS: Bladder; Cystitis; Eosinophilic inflammation; Pseudotumor.

CORRESPONDENCE: Dr. Siddalingeshwar Neeli, Associate Professor & Consultant Urologist, Department of Urology, KLE University, J. N. Medical College and KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital & MRC, Nehrunagar, Belgaum 590010, INDIA ().

CITATION: Urotoday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.07

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: CT, computed tomography; EC, eosinophilic cystitis; IgE, immunoglobulin E.



Liposarcoma of the Spermatic Cord: A Case Report and Review of Management


Malignant lesions of the spermatic cord are rare; among them, sarcomas are the most frequent. The present article is a case report of a well-differentiated liposarcoma of the spermatic cord involving a 58 year-old male who presented with a painless scrotal mass. The mainstay of management is excision with radical orchiectomy. The most important factors for prognosis are the histologic subtype and surgical margin status. Adjuvant treatment may include radiation, depending on the presence of poor prognostic indicators. The role of chemotherapy is not clearly defined, and experience is limited to cases where recurrence has occurred. Patients with a well-differentiated liposarcoma of the spermatic cord have a good prognosis if surgical margins are negative and do not routinely require adjuvant therapy. Long-term surveillance is critical, because reports in the literature have demonstrated recurrences after 20 years.

KEYWORDS: Liposarcoma; Spermatic cord; Paratesticular tumor

CORRESPONDENCE: Joshua E. Logan, M.D., 6333 Center Drive, Building 16, Interstate Corporate Center, Norfolk, VA 23502, USA ().

CITATION: UroToday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.08

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: CT, computed tomography; FNCLCC, Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer; MRI, magnetic resonance image; NCI, National Cancer Institute.



Antegrade Scrotal Sclerotherapy With and Without Tamoxifen for Treatment of Infertile Men Due to Variocele


INTRODUCTION: The objective was to compare the semen quality and hormonal levels of patients with variocele receiving antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy (ASS) alone versus a combination of ASS and tamoxifen.

METHODS: The design was a cross-sectional investigation of 72 patients with varicocele that were surgically managed with ASS. The patients were admitted to the hospital urology department from January to June 2009 with different grades of varicocele and infertility. They were randomly divided into 2 groups: 37 patients underwent ASS only; 35 patients underwent ASS and received tamoxifen citrate 10 mg twice daily, starting immediately after ASS and continuing for 6 months. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively by history, clinical examination, semen analysis, and Doppler ultrasound. Hormonal assay was indicated in cases of severe oligospermia. Outcome measures were semen parameters and hormonal levels. Operative time, length of hospital stay, length of time before return to normal activity, recurrence rate, and cost of each procedure were also recorded.

RESULTS: The mean (SD) ASS operative time was 20 (6.4) minutes for patients with unilateral varicocele and 28 (10.8) minutes for patients with bilateral varicocele. The hospital stay for patients with unilateral and bilateral surgery was < 24 hours and < 30 hours, respectively. Patients in both groups showed statistically significant improvement in semen count, motility, and abnormal forms 6 months after surgery (P < .001). Over 70% of the patients in both groups had improvement in all 3 measures and there were no significant group differences (P > .05). Eleven out of 35 patients in group 2 required hormonal assessment because they had severe oligozoospermia. There was a significant improvement in hormonal levels following treatment (P < .01). Over 80% of the patients in both groups had no recurrence. Persistent varicocele occurred in 10 patients (13.9%), scrotal hematoma in 5 patients, and postoperative scrotal pain in 1 patient.

CONCLUSION: ASS for varicocele in male infertility due to varicocele significantly improves semen parameters with or without tamoxifen. ASS is a rapid, effective, and low-cost procedure.

KEYWORDS: Infertility; Scrotal sclerotherapy; Varicocele

CORRESPONDENCE: Osama Abdelwahab, MD, 1st Gameel Street, Makkah Tower, Benha, 11513, Egypt ().

CITATION: Urotoday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.06

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: ASS, antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone



Tubeless Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy With and Without a Hemostatic Product: A Prospective, Randomized Study


INTRODUCTION: Guidelines for the use of topical hemostatic products have not been established and their necessity for every case is not determined. The purpose of the present prospective, randomized study was to compare the outcomes of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) with and without a hemostatic agent.

METHODS: A total of 48 patients with lower calyceal, middle calyceal, or pelvic renal stones ≤ 3 cm were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. All patients received single-stage tubeless PNL through 1 access tract. Group 1 had no local hemostatic agent; group 2 had oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel; Ethicon Inc, Somerville, NJ, USA). Plain kidney, ureter, bladder X-ray and renal ultrasound were performed at the first postoperative day to evaluate the stone-free rate and detect any perinephric hematoma. Postoperative urinary leakage and postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) were also measured. Patients had ultrasound to determine the amount of the perinephric collection before being discharged.

RESULTS: No postoperative urinary leakage through the percutaneous tract was detected in either group. The mean (standard deviation) postoperative reduction in Hb concentration was 1.13 g/dL (1.11) for patients in group 1 and 1 g/dL (0.76) for patients in group 2; the group difference was not significant (P = .20). Most patients had no postoperative perinephric collection; minimal collection of 1 cm x 0.5 cm was detected in 2 cases in group 1 and 3 cases in group 2 (P = .30). No patient in either group had perinephric hematoma. Most patients were stone free: 22 patients (91.7%) in group 1; 20 patients (83.3%) in group 2.

CONCLUSIONS: Topical hemostatic agents may not be needed after an uncomplicated percutaneous renal procedure.

KEYWORDS: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy; Tubeless PNL; Hemostatic agents.

CORRESPONDENCE: Mohamed H. Ali, MD, Lecturer of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt ().

CITATION: Urotoday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.05

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: FDA, Food and Drug Administration; Hb, hemoglobin; KUB, kidney, ureter, bladder; PNL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy.



Value of Office-Based Transrectal Three-Dimensional Ultrasound for Diagnosis of Acute Dysuria of the Prostatic Urethra


INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of plain radiography, 2-dimensional (2D), and 3-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in diagnosing the causes of acute dysuria, as confirmed by urethroscopy or laboratory findings.

METHODS: Participants were 122 men with clinical presentation of acute dysuria who were previously known to be healthy. Their mean age was 28 years (range, 17-49 years). All patients received a plain radiograph of the urinary tract. A SonoAce X8 ultrasound system (Medison America Inc; Cypress, CA, USA) was used to obtain both 2D and 3D TRUS. Voiding-related symptoms, cause of the dysuria, location, and morphology of the lesions were recorded. The results of the plain radiograph, 2D TRUS, and 3D TRUS were compared with the results of urethroscopy or laboratory findings to determine diagnostic accuracy.

RESULTS: Of the total 122 patients, 113 patients (92.6%) had calcular obstruction of the prostatic urethra; 7 patients (5.7%) had variants of severe urethritis; 2 patients (1.6%) had benign urethral polyps. In cases of calcular obstruction, plain radiography revealed 76.7% of radiopaque stones, the 2D TRUS revealed 80.2% of stones, and the 3D TRUS with high threshold revealed 99.1%. Both 2D TRUS and 3D TRUS with low-threshold technique revealed the polyps and accurately defined their pattern and site. Three-dimensional TRUS descriptions of inflammatory lesions and their effect on periurethral tissues were dissimilar from each other and suggestive of different types.

CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional TRUS imaging may play an important role in the pretreatment evaluation of acute dysuria that is caused by different impeding factors.

KEYWORDS: Three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound (3D TRUS); Prostatic urethra; acute dysuria.

CORRESPONDENCE: Salah Elwagdy, MD, Department of Uroradiology, Azhar University, 133 Shubra Street, Dawaran Shubra, Cairo, 11242, Egypt ().

CITATION: UroToday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.16

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: 2D, 2-dimensional; 3D, 3-dimensional; E. coli, Escherichia coli; ROI, region of interest; TRUS, transrectal ultrasound; US, ultrasound.



Malakoplakia of the Genitourinary Tract: A Report of 3 Cases


Malakoplakia is a rare chronic inflammatory disease, most commonly found in the urinary tract. It has been associated with chronic infections, malignancies, and immunocompromised states. The authors present 3 cases of malakoplakia of the genitourinary tract, seen in 3 female patients who sought medical attention due to pain or bleeding. The histopathological examination in all cases was compatible with malakoplakia and characterized by the presence of Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. All patients were effectively treated with surgical excision in combination with antibiotic therapy.

KEYWORDS: Malakoplakia; Michaelis-Gutmann bodies; Urethral tumor; Urethral diverticulum.

CORRESPONDENCE: Dr. Stavros Charalambous, Urological Department, Ippokratio General Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos Street, Thessaloniki, 54642, Greece ().

CITATION: Urotoday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.12

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: E. coli, Escherichia coli; PAS, periodic acid-Schiff.



Efficacy and Safety of Tamsulosin With and Without Flavoxate in the Treatment of Symptomatic Benign Prostastic Hyperplasia: A Randomized, Single-Blind Study


INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin plus flavoxate with tamsulosin plus a placebo for the treatment of clinically proven lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

METHODS: The participants were 120 patients with BPH and LUTS who were randomized into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received tamsulosin modified release (0.4 mg) once daily and flavoxate (200 mg) 3 times daily; group 2 received tamsulosin modified release (0.4 mg) once daily and a placebo 3 times daily. All patients took the medications orally for 12 weeks. Patients were evaluated before and after treatment by the total International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), the irritative symptoms, voiding symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) IPSS subscores, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume. Adverse events were also summarized. The t test was used for group comparisons in response to treatment.

RESULTS: All patients responded positively to treatment. The group taking tamsulosin plus flavoxate had significant improvement in the mean total IPSS (P < .001), irritative symptom subscore (P < .002), and QoL score (P < .002) when compared with the group taking tamsulosin plus placebo. There was no significant group difference in the mean voiding symptom subscore, Qmax, or PVR volume. Group differences in mean frequency and nocturia at the end of 12 weeks approached statistical significance (P = .05); patients taking tamsulosin plus flavoxate had fewer episodes. There was no significant group difference in urgency. One patient withdrew from each group due to complaints of impotence and ejaculatory dysfunction; all other adverse events were mild and transient.

CONCLUSION: Taking a combination of tamsulosin with flavoxate improved IPSS, irritating symptoms, and QoL significantly more than taking the alpha blocker alone. The combined drugs had good safety and can be considered as a therapeutic option for treatment of LUTS associated with BPH.

KEYWORDS: Tamsulosin; Flavoxate; Irritative symptoms; IPSS; LUTS

CORRESPONDENCE: Dr. Amitabh Dash, A-3, MIG Flats, Ground Floor, Prasad Nagar, New Delhi-110005, India ().

CITATION: UroToday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.09

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia; IPSS, International Prostate Symptom Score; LUTS, lower urinary tract symptoms; OAB, overactive bladder; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; PVR, postvoid residual; QoL, quality of life; Qmax, maximum urinary flow rate.



A Huge Renal Mass With Uncommon Pathology of Leiomyoma


Leiomyomas are benign mesenchymal tumors that arise from smooth muscle cells anywhere in the body. Renal leiomyoma is a rare condition. The authors report the case of a woman with a huge right-sided renal mass that was incidentally found.

KEYWORDS: Leiomyoma; Kidney; Benign tumor.

CORRESPONDENCE: Esat Korgali, MD, Cumhuriyet University Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Kampus, Sivas, 58100, Turkey ().

CITATION: UroToday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.01

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: CT, computed tomography; USG, urine-specific gravity.



Condylomata Acuminata With Concomitant Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: A Rare Clinical Presentation


Condyloma acuminatum generally has been considered a benign growth with no malignant potential. The present patient presented with condylomata acuminate of the penis and concomitant invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Partial amputation of the penis along with cauterization of the warts was successfully undertaken.

KEYWORDS: Condylomata acuminata; Concomitant; Squamous cell carcinoma; Penis.

CORRESPONDENCE: Dr. Sachit Sharma, MD, MCh. Department of Urology, PGIMS, Rohtak (Haryana), 124001 India ().

CITATION: UroToday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.02

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: HPV, human papilloma virus.



Management of Kidney Stones After Failure of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy


INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to compare the outcome of flexible ureteroscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolitripsy (PCNL) following failure of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for patients with renal stones.

METHODS: Participants were 66 adult patients with renal stones 8-20 mm in diameter. All patients had failed ESWL after a maximum of 2 sessions. Patients were assigned to treatment groups according to their choice. A total of 39 patients chose URS and 27 patients chose PCNL. Group differences in outcome measures were determined using Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests.

RESULTS: URS was technically successful in 31 cases; conversion to PCNL was done for the remaining 8 cases. The mean (standard deviation) operative time of 65 (15) minutes for the PCNL procedure was significantly shorter than the operative time of 115 (16) minutes for URS (P < .001). Conversely, the mean hospital stay of 1.19 (0.4) days and 1.09 (0.3) postoperative analgesic injections for the patients receiving URS were significantly shorter than the hospital stay of 5.28 (1.1) days and 3.2 (0.6) injections for the patients receiving PCNL (both P < .001). Revision of URS was needed in 4 cases; 2 of these patients became stone-free. One month postoperatively, the stone-free rate was 61% and 77% after URS and PCNL, respectively (P = .162). No patient in either group had significant complications.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the operative time was shorter for PCNL, URS is superior in terms of hospital stay and postoperative pain. Stone-free rates were not significantly different. These results help justify the preference of URS for treatment of kidney stones after failure of ESWL.

KEYWORDS: Kidney stones; Flexible URS; PCNL.

CORRESPONDENCE: Yehya Hassan ElShebiny MD, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Adan Hospital, Fahaheel, PO Box 46496, Kuwait City, 64015, Kuwait ().

CITATION: Urotoday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.13

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: ESWL, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; PCNL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy; URS, ureteroscopy.



A Method for Teaching Junior Urologists How to Gain Access to the Pelvicalyceal System Under Fluoroscopy


INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to determine the success of a teaching method for junior urologists who were learning to puncture a calyx for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) under fluoroscopic guidance.

METHODS: The participants were 4 junior urologists who had never performed a complete PCNL puncture on their own. There were 22 patients with kidney stones, ranging in age from 28-52 years. The procedure was conducted by 1 junior urologist while being guided verbally by the senior physician. A needle was placed on the skin where its trajectory hit the desired calyx in the 0o and 30o planes under fluoroscopy. The needle was advanced in successive 1 cm increments. Its position was checked after each step. Any deviation from the correct path in either plane was detected early and corrected, until the desired calyx was reached in both planes simultaneously. Success of the teaching technique was determined by how often the senior physician needed to intervene. Success of the surgery was determined by its outcome, including the need for needle reinsertion and presence of complications.

RESULTS: Each surgery was performed independently by the junior urologist, with no senior physician intervention aside from verbal guidance. Successful puncture of the desired calyx was achieved during the first trial in 17 patients (77%); the needle had to be reinserted 1 or more times to attain proper direction in 5 patients (23%). Complications were blood transfusion (n = 1) and prolonged urine leakage after postoperative removal of the nephrostomy tube (n = 2).

CONCLUSION: Step-by-step advancement of the needle is a simple, accurate way to gain access to pelvicalyceal system. Junior urologists are spared the frustration that they might have after repeated failure to gain access to the kidney with other techniques.

KEYWORDS: Step-by-step instruction; Pelvicalyceal system puncture; Fluoroscopy.

CORRESPONDENCE: Yehya Hassan Elshebiny MD, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Adan Hospital, Fahaheel, PO Box 46496, Kuwait, 64015, Kuwait ().

CITATION: UroToday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.04

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: PCNL, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy.



Prognostic Factors in Renal Cell Carcinoma With Vena Cava Extension


INTRODUCTION: The objectives were to: (1) analyze clinical and pathological features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with caval thrombosis in order to indentify independent prognostic factors, and (2) analyze perioperative morbidity and mortality.

METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed clinical and pathological data of 56 patients treated for RCC with caval thrombosis during a 20-year period. The surgical procedure was essentially unchanged. Independent variables were: TNM, creatinine value, age, histological extent, histological type, adjuvant treatment, and surgical technique; the dependent variable was overall survival. Contingency and logistic regression tables were used. Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank, and Cox models were used to analyze survival rates.

RESULTS: There were complications in 15 patients and 2 perioperative deaths. Overall mean (SD) survival rates were 32% (7%) and 24% (6%) at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Multivariate results showed that the significant prognostic indicators of survival were: the size of the tumor > 8 cm (P < .01), the presence of metastasis (P < .04), and lymph node invasion (P < .009). These were also regarded as the relevant variables, independent of patient survival.

CONCLUSION: The surgical approach for this disorder is challenging and not exempt of complications. Nodal involvement, tumor size, and distant metastases are the most important prognostic factors; thrombus extension has a clear impact on surgical planning and performance.

Jorge Rioja,1 Anibal Rincón Mayans,2 Juan Javier Zudaire Bergera,2 David Rosell Costa,2 Jose Enrique Robles García,2 Gregorio Rabago,3 Jose Maria Berian Polo2

1 Dept of Urology, AMC University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

2 Department of Urology, Clínica Universitaria, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain

3 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Clínica Universitaria, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain

Submitted April 2, 2010 - Accepted for Publication July 13, 2010

KEYWORDS: Kidney cancer; Vena cava thrombus; Extracorporeal circulation, Prognostic factors; Multivariate analysis.

CORRESPONDENCE: Dr. Jorge Rioja, AMC University Hospital, Meibergdreef 9. 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands ().

CITATION: UroToday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.18

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: ECC, extracorporeal circulation; IVC, inferior vena cava; RCC, renal cell carcinoma.



Isolated Renal Zygomycosis Caused by Syncephalastrum Species in an Immunocompetent Host: A Case Report


A 39-year-old male presented with left flank pain, intermittent high-grade fever, and passage of whitish flakes in the urine for the last 6 months. Urine culture was sterile. Fluffy whitish material, suggestive of fungal elements, was discovered during cystoscopy and ureteroscopy. On direct microscopy, this material showed fungal hyphae that were suggestive of Zygomycosis. The material was identified as Syncephalastrum species on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) culture media. The patient was managed by endoscopic removal of the fungus and antifungal medication. He was doing well at the 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up evaluations. Renal Zygomycosis caused by Syncephalastrum species in an immunocompetent host is extremely rare and can be managed successfully by endoscopic removal and antifungal medication.

KEYWORDS: Renal Zygomycosis; Syncephalastrum species; Immunocompetent host.

CORRESPONDENCE: Suresh Kumar, MS, MCh, Resident, IPGMER & SSKM Hospital, 601, Doctor PG Hostel, 242, AJC Bose Road, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700020 India ().

CITATION:UroToday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.03

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: DTPA, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid; RGP, retrograde pyelography.



Cystic Renal Leiomyosarcoma Treated With Partial Nephrectomy


Renal sarcoma is rare among all renal malignancies. The present report is a case of renal leiomyosarcoma in a 59-year-old woman. She had an asymptomatic cystic renal tumor that was incidentally found by abdominal computed tomography. The characteristics of the tumor mimicked cystic renal cell carcinoma. Partial nephrectomy was completed. The pathological diagnosis was low-grade leiomyosarcoma. The patient has remained well without recurrence for 44 months following the surgery.

KEYWORDS: Renal tumor; Sarcoma; Leiomyosarcoma; Cystic mass; Partial nephrectomy.

CORRESPONDENCE: Yuji Satoh, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan ().

CITATION: UroToday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.17

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: CT, computed tomography; NSS, nephron-sparing surgery.



Internal Spermatic and Peripheral Vein Plasma 5-Hydroxytryptamine Concentration Levels in Patients With Varicocele


INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to compare the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plasma levels of the internal spermatic vein and peripheral vein for patients with varicocele and infertility with a comparison group of fertile patients needing scrotal surgery for other reasons, and to examine the correlation between the 5-HT levels and semen parameters.

METHODS: Participants were 30 patients with varicocele and infertility and a comparison group of 30 fertile patients with inguinal hernia, hydrocele, or epididymal cyst. Their ages ranged from 24-35 years. Patients with varicocele received at least 2 semen analyses before surgery. Spermatic vein blood samples were taken intraoperatively and peripheral vein blood samples were taken preoperatively from all patients. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used for semen analysis; the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to measure blood plasma 5-HT levels. Analysis of variance and Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to analyze the data.

RESULTS: The plasma free serotonin concentration of the internal spermatic vein was significantly higher than the concentration in the peripheral vein for patients with varicocele (P < .01), and significantly higher than the spermatic vein concentration of the comparison group (P < .01). In the comparison group, no statistically significant difference was found between the plasma free serotonin concentration of the spermatic and peripheral veins (P > .05). There were significant negative correlations between the plasma 5-HT levels of the internal spermatic vein and sperm density (Spearman r = -0.465, P = .0097) and sperm motility (Spearman r = -0.539, P = .0024) in the patients with varicocele.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with varicocele have elevated free 5-HT plasma concentrations in the spermatic vein that may be a cause of fertility decline.

KEYWORDS: Varicocele; 5-hydroxytryptamine; Internal spermatic vein; Peripheral vein; Semen parameters .

CORRESPONDENCE: Salifou Issiaka TRAORE, MD, PhD. Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital, Department of Urology, Wuchang East Lake Road No. 169, Wuhan City, P.O. Box 430071, China () or Professor Zheng Xin-min ().

CITATION: Urotoday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.11

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT2R, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 2; CRF, corticotropin releasing factor; ISVD, internal spermatic vein diameter; OD, optical density; WHO, World Health Organization.



Can Modeled Analysis of Urodynamic Recordings Help to Demonstrate the Nervous Control of the Bladder and Urethra During Micturition?


INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to build and test a mathematical model that allows new information about efferent neural activity for the bladder and sphincter to be extracted from urodynamic recordings during the micturition cycle.

METHODS: The main features of the VBN micturition model were reviewed. An extended VBN model that includes a more detailed model of nervous control was then described. The mean firing rate F(t) of efferent neurons was linked first to an effective calcium excitation E(t) in the muscle cells and then to the detrusor and urethral pressures. Finally, this model was used to retrospectively analyze urodynamic recordings of 166 male and female patients with various voiding characteristics.

RESULTS: The main result was the striking simplicity of the computed F(t) curves for both the detrusor and sphincter during the 3 phases of the micturition cycle (storage-continence, micturition, and return to continence). This result occurred in most of the micturitions: (1) normal with or without break of detrusor excitation, (2) abnormal with large residual volume, (3) abnormal with effect of a urethral catheter in situ. These curves F(t) were found as a sequence of constant values during the onset of flow and during the plateau phase, and then as a decreasing exponential during the return to continence phase. The transition between the 2 phases was always brisk, suggesting ON/OFF switching of reflexes.

CONCLUSION: The extended VBN model for analyzing urodynamic recordings facilitates comparison and discussion of successive micturitions from a given patient and is a valuable complement to animal studies and to functional imaging of the human brain.

Françoise A Valentini,1,2 Leonor Mazières,2 Pierre P Nelson2

1 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Charles Foix Hospital, Ivry-sur-Seine, France

2 Research Team #6 (Physiology and Pathophysiology of Motility in Humans), Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France

Submitted April 15, 2010 - Accepted for Publication June 13, 2010

KEYWORDS: Mathematical modeling; Nervous control; Micturition; Urodynamics.

CORRESPONDENCE: Dr. Françoise A. Valentini, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hôpital Charles Foix, 7, avenue de la République, 94200 – Ivry-sur-Seine, France (; ).

CITATION: Urotoday Int J. 2010 Aug;3(4). doi:10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2010.08.10

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS: BPE, benign prostatic enlargement; D, index of voiding dysfunction (VBN parameter); DO, detrusor overactivity; E(t), « Effective calcium excitation »; F, firing rate; FF, free uroflow; G, Griffiths’ function; k, detrusor contractility (VBN parameter); LUT, LUTS, lower urinary tract, lower urinary tract symptom; NIDC, noninhibited detrusor contraction; N(t), « modulating factor » of pressure; pabd, pabd.eff, abdominal pressure, effective abdominal pressure; pcontractile, detrusor pressure due to contractile component; pdet, pdet.Qmax, detusor pressure, detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate; pelastic, detrusor pressure due to elastic component; PF, pressure-flow; prec, rectal presure; pves, bladder pressure; pucp, prostatic urethra counter pressure (VBN parameter); PVR, postvoid residual volume; Q, Qmax, flow rate, maximum flow rate; T, time constant; V, Vu, Vini, bladder volume, voided volume, initial bladder volume; VBN, Valentini, Besson, Nelson; W, ratio of active regulatory protein.