A comprehensive status update on modification of foley catheter to combat catheter-associated urinary tract infections and microbial biofilms.

Present-day healthcare employs several types of invasive devices, including urinary catheters, to improve medical wellness, the clinical outcome of disease, and the quality of patient life. Among urinary catheters, the Foley catheter is most commonly used in patients for bladder drainage and collection of urine. Although such devices are very useful for patients who cannot empty their bladder for various reasons, they also expose patients to catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). Catheter provides an ideal surface for bacterial colonization and biofilm formation, resulting in persistent bacterial infection and severe complications. Hence, rigorous efforts have been made to develop catheters that harbour antimicrobial and anti-fouling properties to resist colonization by bacterial pathogens. In this regard, catheter modification by surface functionalization, impregnation, blending, or coating with antibiotics, bioactive compounds, and nanoformulations have proved to be effective in controlling biofilm formation. This review attempts to illustrate the complications associated with indwelling Foley catheters, primarily focussing on challenges in fighting CAUTI, catheter colonization, and biofilm formation. In this review, we also collate scientific literature on catheter modification using antibiotics, plant bioactive components, bacteriophages, nanoparticles, and studies demonstrating their efficacy through in vitro and in vivo testing.

Critical reviews in microbiology. 2023 Jan 18 [Epub ahead of print]

Jatin Chadha, Navdisha Thakur, Sanjay Chhibber, Kusum Harjai

Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.