Impact of early postoperative indwelling urinary catheter removal: A systematic review.

Indwelling urinary catheters (IDUCs) are associated with complications and early removal is therefore essential. Currently, it is unknown what the effect of a specific removal time is and what the consequences of this removal time are.

To present an overview of the available evidence to determine the effects of three postoperative IDUC removal times (after a certain number of hours, at a specific time of day and flexible removal time) on the development of complications in hospital.

PubMed, Medline, Embase, Emcare and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched till 6 June, 2021. Studies were included that described the effect of the removal time in relation to re-catheterisation, urinary tract infections (UTIs), ambulation time, time of first voiding and hospital stay. The quality of the studies was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care. A narrative descriptive analysis was performed. PRISMA guidelines were followed in reporting this review.

Twenty studies were included from which 18 compared removal after a number of hours, 1 reported on a specific removal time and 1 reported on both topics. The results were contradicting regarding the hypothesis that later removal increases the incidence of UTIs. Earlier removal does not lead to a higher re-catheterisation rate while immediate removal is beneficial for reducing the time to first ambulation and shortening the hospital stay. Studies reporting on specific removal times did not find differences in outcomes. No study addressed flexible removal time.

There is inconclusive evidence that earlier removal results in less UTIs, despite the incidence of UTIs increasing if the IDUC is removed ≥24 h. Immediate or after 1-2 day(s) removal does not lead to higher re-catheterisation rates while immediate removal results in earlier ambulation and shorter length of hospital stay.

Nurses should focus on early IDUC removal while being aware of urinary retention.

Journal of clinical nursing. 2022 Jun 08 [Epub ahead of print]

Jeanne-Marie Nollen, Laury Pijnappel, Jan W Schoones, Wilco C Peul, Wouter R Van Furth, Anja H Brunsveld-Reinders

Department of Neurosurgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands., Walaeus Library, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands., Department of Quality and Patient Safety, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.