Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the regular surgery for treating large or complex renal stones. Since its first inception, many variations have come in the approach including the modifications of patient position.
The presence of normal tissues in the irradiated volume limits dose escalation during pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Supine and prone positions on a belly board were compared by analyzing the exposure of organs at risk (OARs) using intensity modulated RT (IMRT).
Very limited informations are currently available about the best approach to perform retroperitoneoscopic surgery. This multicentric international study aimed to compare the outcome of lateral versus prone approach for retroperitoneoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN) in children.
PURPOSE - To assess the approachability of the upper calyx through a lower calyx access in prone and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomies (PCNLs), and to employ computerized tomography (CT) to analyze anatomical factors that may influence it.
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