Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is relatively uncommon.
Radical nephroureterectomy with an ipsilateral bladder cuff excision has been the gold standard treatment for UTUC. However, recent advances in technology have made possible the increased use of endoscopic management for the treatment of UTUC. The definitive goal of endoscopic management of UTUC is cancer control while maintaining renal function and the integrity of the urinary tract. Endoscopic management includes both the retrograde ureteroscopic and antegrade percutaneous approaches. The endoscopic management of UTUC is a reasonable alternative for patients with renal insufficiency or a solitary functional kidney, bilateral disease, or a significant comorbidity that precludes radical surgery. Select patients with a functional contralateral kidney who have low-grade, low-stage tumors may also be candidates for endoscopic management. The careful selection of patients is the most important point for the successful endoscopic management of UTUC. It is crucial that patients are compliant and motivated, because a lifetime protocol of strict surveillance is necessary. Adjuvant topical therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or mitomycin C can be used after endoscopic management of UTUC in an attempt to reduce recurrence. In this article, we review current endoscopic techniques, indications for endoscopic treatment, clinical outcomes of endoscopic management, adjuvant topical therapy, and surveillance in patients with UTUC.
Park BH, Jeon SS. Are you the author?
Department of Urology, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.
Reference: Korean J Urol. 2013 Jul;54(7):426-32.