Oncologic Outcomes of Salvage Chemotherapy in Patients with Recurrent or Metastatic Lesions after Radical Nephroureterectomy: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Study.

Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is the standard treatment for patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). However, approximately 25% of patients experience recurrence or metastasis after RNU. This study evaluated the clinical outcome and efficacy of salvage chemotherapy (SC) after recurrence or metastasis.

Of the 441 nonmetastatic UTUC patients who underwent RNU, 147 patients with recurrent or metastatic lesions were analyzed; patients with bladder cancer recurrence were excluded. Time from disease recurrence or metastasis to cancer-specific survival (CSS) was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analyses were performed with the Cox proportional hazards regression model, controlling for the effects of clinicopathological factors.

The median time from RNU to disease recurrence or metastasis was 13.2 months. In the recurrent or metastatic sites, 31 cases (21%) were liver. In multivariate analyses, pT stage (≥pT3), time to recurrence (<12 months), and liver metastasis were independently predictive factors. In the risk stratification model for CSS after recurrence, patients were categorized into 2 groups based on pT stage, time to recurrence, and liver metastasis. The low-risk group (0-1 risk factors) included 87 patients, and the high-risk group (2-3 risk factors) included 60 patients. In the high-risk group, 27 patients received SC. The probability of CSS after recurrence or metastasis was higher in patients in the SC group compared to the non-SC group (9.5 vs. 3.7 months; p < 0.001).

Two or more risk factors defined the high-risk group for patients with recurrence or metastasis after RNU. SC was associated with improved survival in patients with high-risk UTUC.

Chemotherapy. 2020 Nov 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Masaomi Ikeda, Kazumasa Matsumoto, Takahiro Hirayama, Dai Koguchi, Yasukiyo Murakami, Daisuke Matsuda, Norihiko Okuno, Takuji Utsunomiya, Yoshinori Taoka, Akira Irie, Masatsugu Iwamura

Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan., Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan, ., Department of Urology, Kitasato University Medical Center, Saitama, Japan., Department of Urology, Higashiyamato Hospital, Tokyo, Japan., Department of Urology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara Hospital, Sagamihara, Japan., Department of Urology, Kanagawa Prefectural Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives for Health and Welfare Sagamihara Kyodo Hospital, Sagamihara, Japan., Department of Urology, Kitasato University Kitasato Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

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