While about 50% of non- seminomatous germ cell tumors of the testes present as clinical stage I (CSI), further management of these patients continues to be mired in controversy. Active surveillance is a frontline option for low- risk CS I patients and according to some, even the high- risk ones with high embryonal carcinoma (ECA) component and vascular invasion (VI). However, it carries the disadvantage of long- term surveillance, the need for prolonged chemotherapy in case of recurrence and the possibility of secondary malignancies due to radiation exposure from frequent CT scans. One or two cycles of BEP chemotherapy is a popular alternative to active surveillance which carries a very low relapse rate, but valid concerns about overtreatment of a majority of patients, with the attendant chemotherapy- related toxicity exist. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has been used as a means of avoiding chemotherapy, especially in high- risk patients, but carries the disadvantage of a high surgical morbidity and complications. As with any major surgical procedure, the best results are dependent on the experience and skill of the individual surgeon.
Indian journal of surgical oncology. 2016 Dec 17 [Epub]
Puneet Ahluwalia, Gagan Gautam
Division of Uro Oncology & Robotic Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Max Institute of Cancer Care, Saket, New Delhi, India.