OBJECTIVE:Testicular cancer incidence appears to be increasing.
In many regions, industrialization results in the production of potentially carcinogenic environmental toxins. We review the available data linking environmental toxins to testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT).
METHODS:A PubMed review of the English literature was performed to identify studies evaluating the relationship between environmental toxins and TGCT.
RESULTS:Many environmental toxins have been implicated in the development of TGCT, including organochlorines, polychlorinated biphenyls, polyvinyl chlorides, phthalates, marijuana, and tobacco. Variable levels of evidence exist and significant study design limitations preclude a definitive etiologic role for individual environmental toxins.
CONCLUSION: Environmental toxins may play an important but undetermined role in the development of TGCT. Further work is needed to evaluate specific toxins and TGCT carcinogenesis.
Meeks JJ, Sheinfeld J, Eggener SE. Are you the author?
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
Reference: Urol Oncol. 2012 Mar-Apr;30(2):212-5.