Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Chemotherapy, N. N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Moscow, Russia.
Late relapses (>2 years) after completion of chemotherapy are rare and often platinum-resistant. There are limited data concerning late relapses in chemotherapy-naïve patients with stage I germ cell tumors. This retrospective analysis was performed to compare the outcome between patients with stage I germ cell tumors, who had late (≥2 years) and early (≥3 months and <2 years) relapse after orchiectomy.
We analyzed data of 1,069 chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced germ cell tumors of testis treated in our department from 1986 to 2008. All patients had cisplatin- and etoposide-based chemotherapy. We identified 169 (15.8%) patients with prior stage I disease, who had not received adjuvant treatment: 140 and 29 patients had early and late relapse, respectively. Among patients with late relapse, pure seminoma was revealed in 14 patients, and nonseminoma in 15 patients. Median follow-up time for 169 patients was 35 (range, 2-218) months.
Patients with late relapse were older, 35 years (23-57) and had more frequent pure seminoma in primary tumor, 14/29 (48.3%), than patients with early relapse, 30 years (16-63) (P = 0.0008) and 46/140 (32,8%, P = 0.08), respectively. At the time of disease progression, both groups were very similar according to well-known prognostic factors including IGCCCG classification. The only difference was larger size of retroperitoneal lymph nodes in late (9 cm) than in early relapse (4 cm, P < 0.0001). The outcome in patients with late relapse was significantly worse than in patients with early relapse: complete response rate after induction chemotherapy was 20.7% (6/29) vs. 42.1% (59/140) (P = 0.01), 3-year progression-free survival 66% vs. 84% (P = 0.02, HR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-8.8) and 3-year overall survival, 72% vs. 88% (P = 0.04, HR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.05-10.25), respectively. In patients with pure seminoma, this difference in overall survival was even more significant: 65% vs. 91% (P = 0.04, HR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.06-32.4).
Late relapses following stage I germ cell tumors were associated with seminoma, older age, and worse outcome after induction chemotherapy.
Fedyanin M, Tryakin A, Kanagavel D, Bulanov A, Burova A, Figurin K, Fainshtein I, Sergeev U, Zakharova T, Garin A, Tjulandin S. Are you the author?
Reference: Urol Oncol. 2011 Jul 29. Epub ahead of print.