Testicular Cancer - Etiology

  • Cryptorchidism. Testicular maldescent is frequently associated with testis cancer. Recent studies place the relative risk of testis cancer in these patients at 3 to 14 fold the general population. 5-10 percent of those with Cryptorchidism will demonstrate a lesion in the contralateral testis. Orchiopexy does not reduce the risk of cancer but allows for better monitoring of the gonad.
  • Trauma and atrophy have been explored as possible causative factors yet the data is weak
  • Sex hormones. Exogenous estrogens can cause testicular dysfunction and exposure to diethylstilbesterol DES is associated with a 2-5 percent risk of cancer


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