Testicular Cancer - Etiology

  • Cryptorchidism. Testicular maldescent is frequently associated with testis cancer. Recent studies place the relative risk of testis cancer in these patients at 3 to 14 fold the general population. 5-10 percent of those with Cryptorchidism will demonstrate a lesion in the contralateral testis. Orchiopexy does not reduce the risk of cancer but allows for better monitoring of the gonad.
  • Trauma and atrophy have been explored as possible causative factors yet the data is weak
  • Sex hormones. Exogenous estrogens can cause testicular dysfunction and exposure to diethylstilbesterol DES is associated with a 2-5 percent risk of cancer

References

  • Baniel J, Foster RS, Rowland RG, Bihrle R, Donahue JP: Testis cancer: Complications of post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. J Urol 153:976-980, 1995.
  • Donohue JP, Thornhill JA, Foster RS, Bihrle R, Rowland RG, Einhorn LH: The role of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in clinical stage B testis cancer: The Indiana University experience (1965 to 1989). J Urol 153:85-89, 1995.
  • Einhorn LH: Salvage therapy for germ cell tumors. Semin Oncol 21:47-51, 1994.
  • Einhorn LH, Donohue JP: Advanced testicular cancer: Update for urologists. J Urol 160:1964-1969. 1998.
  • Moller H, Skakkeback NE: Testicular cancer and cryptorchidism in relation to prenatal factors: Case control studies in Denmark. Cancer Causes Control 8:904-12, 1997.
  • Nichols C, Loehrer P Sr: The story of second cancers in patients cured of testicular cancer: Tarnishing success of burnishing irrelevance. J Natl Cancer Inst 89:1304-1305, 1997.
  • Wegner HEH, Hubotter A, Andresen R, Miller K: Testicular microlithiasis and concomitant testicular intraepithelial neoplasia. Int Urol Nephrol 30:313-315, 1998.

 

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