New insights on testicular cancer prevalence with novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic approaches.

Testicular cancer (TC), comprising merely 1% of male neoplasms, holds the distinction of being the most commonly encountered neoplasm among young males.

Most cases of testicular neoplasms can be classified into two main groups, namely germ cell tumors representing approximately 95% of the cases, and sex cord-stromal tumors accounting for about 5% of the cases. Moreover, its prevalence is on the rise across the globe. TC is a neoplastic condition characterized by a favorable prognosis. The advent of cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic agents in the latter part of the 1970s has led to a significant enhancement in the 5-year survival rate, which presently surpasses 95%. Given that TC is commonly detected before reaching the age of 40, it can be anticipated that these individuals will enjoy an additional 40-50 years of life following successful treatment. The potential causes of TC are multifactorial and related to different pathologies. Accurate identification is imperative to guarantee the utmost efficacious and suitable therapy. To a certain degree, this can be accomplished through the utilization of blood examinations for neoplastic indicators; nonetheless, an unequivocal diagnosis necessitates an evaluation of the histological composition of a specimen via a pathologist.

TC is multifactorial and has various pathologies, therefore this review aimed to revise the prenatal and postnatal causes as well as novel diagnostic biomarkers and the therapeutic strategies of TC.

Cancer reports (Hoboken, N.J.). 2024 Mar [Epub]

Kadry M Sadek, Hazem Y AbdEllatief, Sahar F E Mahmoud, Athanasios Alexiou, Marios Papadakis, Marwan Al-Hajeili, Hebatallah M Saad, Gaber El-Saber Batiha

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Abadiyyat Damanhur, Egypt., Department of Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Abadiyyat Damanhur, Egypt., University Centre for Research and Development, Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab, India., Department of Surgery II, University Hospital Witten-Herdecke, Wuppertal, Germany., Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia., Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Matrouh University, Marsa Matruh, Egypt., Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt.