Conventional ultrasonography represents the mainstay of testis imaging. In cases in which ultrasonography is inconclusive, scrotal MRI using a multiparametric protocol may be used as a useful problem-solving tool. MRI of the scrotum is primarily recommended for differentiating between benign and malignant testicular masses when sonographic findings are ambiguous. This technique is also accurate in the preoperative local staging of testicular tumors and, therefore, is recommended in patients scheduled for testis-sparing surgery. In addition, MRI may provide valuable information regarding the histological characterization of testicular germ-cell tumors, in selected cases. Scrotal MRI may also help in the differentiation between testicular germ-cell neoplasms and non-germ-cell neoplasms. Axial T1-weighted imaging, axial and coronal T2-weighted imaging, axial diffusion-weighted imaging, and coronal subtracted dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging are the minimum requirements for scrotal MRI. A variety of MRI techniques-including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, proton MR spectroscopy, volumetric apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis, and MRI-based radiomics-are being investigated for testicular mass characterization, providing valuable supplementary diagnostic information. In the present review, we aim to discuss clinical indications for scrotal MRI in cases of testicular tumors, along with MRI findings of common testicular malignancies.
Cancers. 2022 Aug 13*** epublish ***
Athina C Tsili, Nikolaos Sofikitis, Ourania Pappa, Christina K Bougia, Maria I Argyropoulou
Department of Clinical Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, University Campus, 451 10 Ioannina, Greece., Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, University Campus, 451 10 Ioannina, Greece.