Treatment of testicular cancer (TC) has an exceptionally high success rate compared to other cancer types; even in case of metastasized disease, 80-90 % of TC patients can be cured. Consequently, attention has been drawn to a potential downside of this treatment success: late adverse treatment effects such as the accelerated development of otherwise age-associated features like cardiovascular disease and second malignancies. Underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Emerging data suggest that cytotoxic treatment induces cellular senescence, resulting in secretion of inflammatory factors contributing to this early ageing phenotype. Molecular and cellular characterization of this early ageing will enhance understanding the pathogenesis of TC treatment-induced morbidity and contribute to better recognition and prevention of late effects. In this review, we describe clinical manifestations of the early ageing phenotype among TC survivors, and subsequently focus on potential underlying mechanisms. We discuss the clinical implications and describe perspectives for future research and intervention strategies.
Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. 2020 May 07 [Epub ahead of print]
Sjoukje Lubberts, Coby Meijer, Marco Demaria, Jourik A Gietema
Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands., European Institute for the Biology of Ageing (ERIBA), University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: ., Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: .