Testicular cancer is relatively uncommon and accounts for <1% of all male tumors. However, it is the most common solid tumor in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years, and the global incidence has been steadily rising over the past several decades. Several risk factors for testicular cancer have been identified, including personal or family history of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism. Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) comprise 95% of malignant tumors arising in the testes and are categorized into 2 main histologic subtypes: seminoma and nonseminoma. Although nonseminoma is the more clinically aggressive tumor subtype, 5-year survival rates exceed 70% with current treatment options, even in patients with advanced or metastatic disease. Radical inguinal orchiectomy is the primary treatment for most patients with testicular GCTs. Postorchiectomy management is dictated by stage, histology, and risk classification; treatment options for nonseminoma include surveillance, systemic therapy, and nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Although rarely occurring, prognosis for patients with brain metastases remains poor, with >50% of patients dying within 1 year of diagnosis. This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Testicular Cancer focuses on recommendations for the management of adult patients with nonseminomatous GCTs.
Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN. 2019 Dec [Epub]
Timothy Gilligan, Daniel W Lin, Rahul Aggarwal, David Chism, Nicholas Cost, Ithaar H Derweesh, Hamid Emamekhoo, Darren R Feldman, Daniel M Geynisman, Steven L Hancock, Chad LaGrange, Ellis G Levine, Thomas Longo, Will Lowrance, Bradley McGregor, Paul Monk, Joel Picus, Phillip Pierorazio, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Philip Saylor, Kanishka Sircar, David C Smith, Katherine Tzou, Daniel Vaena, David Vaughn, Kosj Yamoah, Jonathan Yamzon, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, Jennifer Keller, Lenora A Pluchino
1Case Comprehensive Cancer Center/University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute., 2University of Washington/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance., 3UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center., 4Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center., 5University of Colorado Cancer Center., 6UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center., 7University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center., 8Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center., 9Fox Chase Cancer Center., 10Stanford Cancer Institute., 11Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center., 12Roswell Park Cancer Institute., 13Duke Cancer Institute., 14Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah., 15Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center., 16The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute., 17Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine., 18The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins., 19O'Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center at UAB., 20Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center., 21The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center., 22University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center., 23Mayo Clinic Cancer Center., 24St. Jude Children's Research Hospital/The University of Tennessee Health Science Center., 25Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania., 26Moffitt Cancer Center., 27City of Hope National Medical Center; and., 28National Comprehensive Cancer Network.