Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is the most frequent cancer of the young man with an increasing incidence all over the world. Pathogenesis and reasons for this increase still remain unknown. However, epidemiological and experimental data have suggested that, like genital malformations and sperm impairment, it could result from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, including fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic effects. In this review, we analyze the expression of classical and non-classical estrogen receptors by TGCC cells, the way they may influence germ cell proliferation induced by EDCs, and discuss how this estrogen dependency does support the developmental and environmental hypothesis.
Endocrinology. 2019 Oct 16 [Epub ahead of print]
Patrick Fénichel, Nicolas Chevalier
Université Côte d'Azur, CHU de Nice, Service d'Endocrinologie, Diabétologie et Médecine de la Reproduction, Hôpital de l'Archet, Nice, France.