Robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with concomitant inferior vena cava thrombectomy for metastatic mixed testicular germ cell cancer: a case report.

The robot-assisted laparoscopic management of post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal metastasis and inferior vena cava tumor thrombus secondary to testicular cancer is a challenging task for urologists.

A pathological examination of a 36-year-old Caucasian man who had undergone a right radical orchiectomy showed mixed testicular germ cell cancer (70% embryonal cancer and 30% seminoma); he had undergone four prior courses of cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin chemotherapy and was found to have residual retroperitoneal enlarged lymph nodes close to the right renal hilum and a 9. 8 cm inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (pT1, N2, M1, S2). Pre-surgical three-dimensional image reconstruction was performed based on contrast computed tomography data. The inferior vena cava tumor thrombus was found in the vena cava at the level of the celiac trunk and the inferior mesenteric artery. Our patient accepted treatment with robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with concomitant inferior vena cava thrombectomy and cava reconstruction on September 12, 2018. During the procedure, a drop-in robotic ultrasound probe was used to define the thrombus. Vena cavoscopy using a flexible ureteroscope found that the tumor thrombus adhered to the cava wall in all directions. The tumor thrombus was dissected free from the inferior vena cava lumen, and vena cava reconstruction was achieved using the da Vinci™ Si HD surgical system. The operative time was 550 minutes. The intraoperative estimated blood loss was 2300 ml. Intraoperative blood transfusions consisted of 10 units of red blood cells (Clavien-Dindo grade II). No Clavien-Dindo grade III or above perioperative complications occurred. The length of hospital stay was 7 days. Pathology revealed no viable cancer cells in any of the residual lymph node tissues or in the vena cava tumor thrombus.

This is the first case of robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with concomitant inferior vena cava thrombectomy and reconstruction for metastatic mixed testicular germ cell cancer published to date. This complicated surgical procedure was facilitated by the innovative usage of three-dimensional image reconstruction for defining the vena cava tumor thrombus, a robotic ultrasound probe for intraoperatively defining the vena cava tumor thrombus, and vena cavoscopy using a flexible ureteroscope.

Journal of medical case reports. 2019 Aug 27*** epublish ***

Kai Zhang, Gang Zhu, Xingshuai Liu, Jiangke Tian, Yanfei Gu, Mengyao Zhai, Lu Yang, Wei Liu, Hongbo Li, Francisco J Martinez Portillo

Department of Urology, Beijing United Family Hospital and Clinics, Beijing, 100015, China., Department of Urology, Beijing United Family Hospital and Clinics, Beijing, 100015, China. ., Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing United Family Hospital and Clinics, Beijing, 100015, China., Department of Radiology, Beijing United Family Hospital and Clinics, Beijing, 100015, China., Department of Oncology, Beijing United Family Hospital and Clinics, Beijing, 100015, China., Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing United Family Hospital and Clinics, Beijing, 100015, China.

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