Contemporary Assessment of Long-Term Survival Rates in Patients With Stage I Nonseminoma Germ-Cell Tumor of the Testis: Population-Based Comparison Between Surveillance and Active Treatment After Initial Orchiectomy.

Historical data demonstrated similar survival outcomes in patients with stage I nonseminoma germ-cell tumor of the testis (NSGCTT) subjected to either surveillance or active treatment (AT) after orchiectomy. However, data with long-term follow-up are unavailable. We tested contemporary treatment rates and their effect on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) relative to surveillance, as well as after stratification between chemotherapy (CHT) versus retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND).

We identified patients with stage I NSGCTT with initial orchiectomy within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988-2015). Subsequent surveillance versus CHT versus RPLND use rates were reported. Cumulative incidence plots and multivariable competing-risks regression (CRR) models were used after propensity score (PS) matching. These tests first compared surveillance versus AT (CHT vs. RPLND) and subsequently CHT versus RPLND.

Of 5034 patients with stage I NSGCTT, 61.2%, 24.9%, and 13.9%, respectively, underwent surveillance, CHT, and RPLND. Between 1988 and 2015, surveillance (estimated annual percentage change [EAPC]: +1.1%, P < .001) and CHT (EAPC: +2.3%, P < .001) rates increased. RPLND rates decreased (EAPC: -5.7%; P < .001). After PS matching, CRR models failed to identify AT as an independent predictor of lower mortality relative to surveillance. However, after PS matching, CRR models identified RPLND as an independent predictor of lower CSM (hazard ratio, 0.26; P = .002) relative to CHT. No difference in OCM rates was recorded (hazard ratio, 1.25; P = .2).

Surveillance and CHT use rates increased while RPLND decreased in the last two decades. Virtually the same outcomes were recorded between surveillance and AT. However, within AT, RPLND was associated with lower CSM than CHT.

Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2019 Aug 21 [Epub ahead of print]

Elio Mazzone, Francesco A Mistretta, Sophie Knipper, Zhe Tian, Carlotta Palumbo, Giorgio Gandaglia, Denis Soulieres, Derya Tilki, Francesco Montorsi, Shahrokh F Shariat, Fred Saad, Alberto Briganti, Pierre I Karakiewicz

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Experimental Oncology/Unit of Urology, Urological Research Institute (URI), IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: ., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Martini Klinik, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Urology, Spedali Civili Hospital, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy., Division of Experimental Oncology/Unit of Urology, Urological Research Institute (URI), IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Medical Oncology, University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM), Montreal, Quebec, Canada., Martini Klinik, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Urology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany., Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Urology, University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM), Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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