Purpose In this multicenter study, we evaluated the cumulative burden of morbidity (CBM) among > 1,200 testicular cancer survivors and applied factor analysis to determine the co-occurrence of adverse health outcomes (AHOs). Patients and Methods Participants were ≤ 55 years of age at diagnosis, finished first-line chemotherapy ≥ 1 year previously, completed a comprehensive questionnaire, and underwent physical examination. Treatment data were abstracted from medical records. A CBM score encompassed the number and severity of AHOs, with ordinal logistic regression used to assess associations with exposures. Nonlinear factor analysis and the nonparametric dimensionality evaluation to enumerate contributing traits procedure determined which AHOs co-occurred. Results Among 1,214 participants, approximately 20% had a high (15%) or very high/severe (4.1%) CBM score, whereas approximately 80% scored medium (30%) or low/very low (47%). Increased risks of higher scores were associated with four cycles of either ifosfamide, etoposide, and cisplatin (odds ratio [OR], 1.96; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.71) or bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.98), older attained age (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.26), current disability leave (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.57 to 7.95), less than a college education (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.87), and current or former smoking (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.63). CBM score did not differ after either chemotherapy regimen ( P = .36). Asian race (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.72) and vigorous exercise (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.89) were protective. Variable clustering analyses identified six significant AHO clusters (χ2P < .001): hearing loss/damage, tinnitus (OR, 16.3); hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes (OR, 9.8); neuropathy, pain, Raynaud phenomenon (OR, 5.5); cardiovascular and related conditions (OR, 5.0); thyroid disease, erectile dysfunction (OR, 4.2); and depression/anxiety, hypogonadism (OR, 2.8). Conclusion Factors associated with higher CBM may identify testicular cancer survivors in need of closer monitoring. If confirmed, identified AHO clusters could guide the development of survivorship care strategies.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2018 Apr 04 [Epub ahead of print]
Sarah L Kerns, Chunkit Fung, Patrick O Monahan, Shirin Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard, Mohammad I Abu Zaid, AnnaLynn M Williams, Timothy E Stump, Howard D Sesso, Darren R Feldman, Robert J Hamilton, David J Vaughn, Clair Beard, Robert A Huddart, Jeri Kim, Christian Kollmannsberger, Deepak M Sahasrabudhe, Ryan Cook, Sophie D Fossa, Lawrence H Einhorn, Lois B Travis, Platinum Study Group
Sarah L. Kerns, Chunkit Fung, AnnaLynn M. Williams, and Deepak M. Sahasrabudhe, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester; Darren R. Feldman, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Patrick O. Monahan, Shirin Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard, Mohammad I. Abu Zaid, Timothy E. Stump, Ryan Cook, Lawrence H. Einhorn, and Lois B. Travis, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN; Howard D. Sesso, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Clair Beard, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; Robert J. Hamilton, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario; Christian Kollmannsberger, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; David J. Vaughn, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Robert A. Huddart, The Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Jeri Kim, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Sophie D. Fossa, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.