In patients with mRCC options for second line therapies, following progression on anti-angiogenic agents, that demonstrate a survival advantage in clinical trials have been limited. Recently a number of agents have demonstrated efficacy in this setting. Here in we profile one such therapy, the combination of lenvatinib and everolimus, and discuss the expanded options for therapy available in this setting. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss current algorithms for treatment of mRCC in both the first-line and second-line setting. We discuss the recent addition of cabozantinib and nivolumab, in the second line setting, to the market. Lenvatinib's pharmacology, clinical efficacy and toxicity profile is discussed. A comprehensive literature review was performed using PUBMED. Expert commentary: The current treatment algorithms for mRCC will likely see significant change in the coming years. The addition of immunotherapy to our treatment options in mRCC is of particular importance. Future trials examining the use of immunotherapy, both as monotherapy and in combination with VEGF targeted therapy, will likely be a dominant influence in the therapeutic landscape of mRCC. Progress in terms of the rapid expansion of available active therapies in mRCC needs to be balanced with current deficiencies in terms of predictive biomarkers.
Expert review of clinical pharmacology. 2017 Feb 20 [Epub]
Aine O'Reilly, James Larkin
a Department of Renal & Melanoma , Royal Marsden Hospital , London , UK.