Analgesic use and risk of renal cell carcinoma: A case-control, cohort, and meta-analytic assessment

Analgesics are the most commonly consumed drugs worldwide. Evidence that analgesics increase kidney cancer risk has been mixed. We investigated the association between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and analgesic use in a large population-based case-control study and a post-trial observational cohort study.

Findings were used to update a recent meta-analytic review. We analyzed data from 1,217 RCC cases and 1,235 controls in the US Kidney Cancer Study and 98,807 participants in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO: n=137 RCCs). Self-reported acetaminophen, aspirin, and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and duration information was assessed in relation to RCC. For the US Kidney Cancer Study, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression. For PLCO, we computed hazard ratios (HRs) and 95%CIs using Cox regression. Among case-control participants, RCC risk was associated with over-the-counter acetaminophen use (OR=1.35, 95%CI=1.01-1.83). There was a positive trend with increasing duration (P-trend=0.01), with a two-fold risk for use ≥10 years (OR=2.01, 95%CI=1.30-3.12). No association with prescription acetaminophen use was detected. In PLCO, acetaminophen use was also associated with increased RCC risk (HR=1.68, 95%CI=1.19-2.39), although elevated risk was absent among the few long-term users. No association with RCC risk was detected for aspirin or NSAIDs use in either study. An association between acetaminophen use and kidney cancer was supported by meta-analytic cohort (n=4; summary relative risk=1.34; 95%CI=1.13-1.59; P-heterogeneity =0.40) and case-control (n=9, summary OR=1.20; 95%CI=1.01-1.42; P-heterogeneity =0.05) findings. In brief, acetaminophen use may increase the risk of developing RCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

International journal of cancer. 2016 Mar 24 [Epub ahead of print]

Sara Karami, Sarah E Daughtery, Kendra Schwartz, Faith G Davis, Julie J Ruterbusch, Sholom Wacholder, Barry I Graubard, Sonja I Berndt, Jonathan N Hofmann, Mark P Purdue, Lee E Moore, Joanne S Colt

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA., Patient-Centered Outcome Research Institute, 1828 L Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC, USA., Wayne State University, Karmanos Cancer Institute, 110 E. Warren, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA., University of Illinois, 877 SPHPI M/C 923, 1603 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA., Wayne State University, Karmanos Cancer Institute, 110 E. Warren, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA.

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