Changes in therapy and survival of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Estonia.

Before the era of targeted therapies, cytokines were the main therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Our aim was to analyze the changes in treatments and overall survival (OS) of all mRCC patients in Estonia in relation to the introduction of new medications.

All patients with mRCC who started medical therapy in Estonia during the years 2004-2012 were identified using the database of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. Tumor and treatment data were gathered from medical records. Vital status data were obtained from the Estonian Population Registry. The only available therapy before 2008 was interferon alpha-2A (INFa2A), targeted agents added from 2008. For survival analysis, patients were divided into 2 groups: INFa therapy only (group 1) and INFa followed by targeted agents or targeted agents therapy only (group 2).

Out of 416 identified patients, 380 were eligible for analysis. The most common 1st-line treatments were INFa (55%), sunitinib (32%) and INFa+bevacizumab (13%). 28% of patients received 2nd-line therapies and 15% 3rd-line treatments. Median survival of all patients was 13.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.3-16.2]; 7.6 months (CI 6.4-8.6) for group 1 and 19.8 months (CI 15.6-22.9) for group 2. In multivariate analysis, group 1 had nearly four times higher risk of dying than group 2 [hazard ration (HR) 3.88, 95% CI 2.64-5.72].

The implementation of targeted therapies significantly changed the outcomes of mRCC in Estonia: it prolonged median survival, reduced the risk of death and also enlarged the proportion of patients who received medical therapy.

BMC cancer. 2020 Mar 12*** epublish ***

Hannes Jürgens, Kristiina Ojamaa, Helis Pokker, Kaire Innos, Peeter Padrik

Tartu University Hospital, Clinic of Hematology & Oncology, Puusepa 8, Tartu, Estonia. ., East Tallinn Central Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia., North Estonian Regional Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia., Tartu University Hospital, Clinic of Hematology & Oncology, Puusepa 8, Tartu, Estonia.