New entities, new technologies, new findings: A review of the cytologic features of recently established subtypes of renal cell carcinoma.

Several new renal tumor types with distinctive pathologic, epidemiologic, and genetic signatures have recently been adopted in the fourth edition of the World Health Organization classification. In succeeding years, the cytologic features of most of these new types have been described, adding to the trend of increasing diagnostic accuracy for most common renal cell carcinoma subtypes and the important diagnostic role of cytologic sampling in the management and personalization of therapy. The current article reviews the cytologic findings from these recently established renal cell carcinoma subtypes. Emphasis is placed on cytologic diagnostic clues, confirmatory ancillary testing, salient differential diagnoses, and challenges that can be encountered in an attempt to render accurate interpretations in small samples.

Cancer cytopathology. 2019 Jan 28 [Epub]

Valentina Robila, Adele O Kraft, Steven Christopher Smith

Department of Pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia.

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