Renal cancer represents 2% to 3% of all cancers, and its incidence is rising. The increased use of ultrasonography and cross-sectional imaging has resulted in the clinical dilemma of incidentally detected small renal masses (SRMs). SRMs represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that span the full spectrum of metastatic potential, including benign, indolent, and more aggressive tumors. Currently, no composite model or biomarker exists that accurately predicts the diagnosis of kidney cancer before treatment selection, and the use of renal mass biopsy remains controversial. The management of SRMs has changed dramatically over the last two decades as our understanding of tumor biology and competing risks of mortality in this population has improved. In this review, we critically assess published consensus guidelines and recent literature on the diagnosis and management of SRMs, with a focus on patient treatment selection and use of renal mass biopsy, active surveillance, and thermal ablation. Finally, we highlight important opportunities for leveraging recent research discoveries to identify patients with SRMs at high risk for renal cell carcinoma-related mortality and minimize overtreatment and patient morbidity.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2018 Oct 29 [Epub ahead of print]
Alejandro Sanchez, Adam S Feldman, A Ari Hakimi
Alejandro Sanchez and A. Ari Hakimi, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; and Adam S. Feldman, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.