Cytochromes P450s (CYPs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the metabolism of drugs and other substances. Endogenous substrates of CYPs include eicosanoids, estradiol, arachidonic acids, cholesterol, vitamin D and neurotransmitters. Exogenous substrates of CYPs include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and about 80% of currently used drugs. Some isoforms can activate procarcinogens to ultimate carcinogens. Genetic polymorphisms of CYPs may affect the enzyme catalytic activity and have been reported among different populations to be associated with various diseases and adverse drug reactions. With regard of drug metabolism, phenotypes for CYP polymorphism range from ultrarapid to poor metabolizers. In this review, we discuss some of the most clinically important CYPs isoforms (CYP2D6, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2) with respect to gene polymorphisms and drug metabolism. Moreover, we review the role of CYPs in renal, lung, breast and prostate cancers and also discuss their significance for atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP. 2018 Aug 24*** epublish ***
Imadeldin Elfaki, Rashid Mir, Fahad M Almutairi, Faisel M Abu Duhier
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Email: