Genomic classifications of renal cell carcinoma: a critical step towards the future application of personalized kidney cancer care with pan-omics precision

Over the past 20 years, classifications of kidney cancer have undergone major revisions based on morphological refinements and molecular characterizations. The 2016 WHO classification of renal tumors recognizes more than ten different renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes. Furthermore, the marked inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity of RCC is now well appreciated. Nevertheless, contemporary multi-omics studies of RCC, encompassing genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, not only highlight apparent diversity but also showcase and underline commonality. Here, we wish to provide an integrated perspective concerning the future 'functional' classification of renal cancer by bridging gaps among morphology, biology, multi-omics, and therapeutics. This review focuses on recent progress and elaborates the potential value of contemporary pan-omics approaches with a special emphasis on cancer genomics unveiled through next-generation sequencing technology, and how an integrated multi-omics approach might impact precision-based personalized kidney cancer care in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The Journal of pathology. 2017 Dec 19 [Epub ahead of print]

James J Hsieh, Valerie Le, Dengfeng Cao, Emily H Cheng, Chad J Creighton

Molecular Oncology, Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA., Department of Pathology, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA., Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA., Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.